Kult Filme

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Kult Filme

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Kult Filme

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Kult Filme - Inhaltsverzeichnis

Traurig Um ihre eingebaute Sterblichkeit zu reparieren gehen sie über Leichen. Kult Filme

Frank Henenlotter faced censorship and ridicule, but he found acceptance among audiences receptive to themes that Hollywood was reluctant to touch, such as violence, drug addiction, and misogyny.

Despite featuring an abundance of fake blood, vomit, and diarrhea, Kaufman's films have attracted positive attention from critics and academics.

Films that are influenced by unpopular styles or genres can become cult films. Influenced by American films and early French fantasists, he drifted between art, exploitation, and pornography.

His films were reviled by critics, but he retained a cult following drawn by the nudity and eroticism.

Popular among fans of European horror for their subversiveness and obscurity, these later Spanish films allowed political dissidents to criticize the fascist regime within the cloak of exploitation and horror.

Unlike most exploitation directors, they were not trying to establish a reputation. They were already established in the art-house world and intentionally chose to work within paracinema as a reaction against the New Spanish Cinema , an artistic revival supported by the fascists.

Takashi Miike has been marketed in the West as a shocking and avant-garde filmmaker despite his many family-friendly comedies, which have not been imported.

The transgressive nature of cult films can lead to their censorship. During the s and early s, a wave of explicit, graphic exploitation films caused controversy.

Called " video nasties " within the UK, they ignited calls for censorship and stricter laws on home video releases, which were largely unregulated.

Marketing campaigns have also used such claims to raise interest among curious audiences. Cult films previously banned are sometimes released with much fanfare and the fans assumed to be already familiar with the controversy.

Personal responsibility is often highlighted, and a strong anti-censorship message may be present. Academics have written of how transgressive themes in cult films can be regressive.

David Church and Chuck Kleinhans describe an uncritical celebration of transgressive themes in cult films, including misogyny and racism. Knowledgeable about feminism and multiculturalism, they seek a refuge from the academic acceptance of these progressive ideals.

Their playful and ironic acceptance of regressive lad culture invites, and even dares, condemnation from academics and the uncool.

Thus, cult films become a tool to reinforce mainstream values through transgressive content; [79] Rebecca Feasy states that cultural hierarchies can also be reaffirmed through mockery of films perceived to be lacking masculinity.

Wishman's subject matter, though exploitative and transgressive, was always framed in terms of female empowerment and the feminine spectator.

They attracted both acclaim and denouncement from critics and progressives. Cult films can be used to help define or create groups as a form of subcultural capital ; knowledge of cult films proves that one is "authentic" or "non-mainstream".

They can be used to provoke an outraged response from the mainstream, which further defines the subculture, as only members could possibly tolerate such deviant entertainment.

This can be done for authenticity, such as horror fans who seek out now-obscure titles from the s instead of the modern, well-known remakes.

Authenticity can also drive fans to decry the mainstream in the form of hostile critics and censors. A film can become the object of a cult following within a particular region or culture if it has unusual significance.

Similarly, James Dean and his brief film career have become icons of alienated youth. Beach party musicals, popular among American surfers, failed to find an equivalent audience when imported to the United Kingdom.

When films target subcultures like this, they may seem unintelligible without the proper cultural capital. Films which appeal to teenagers may offer subcultural identities that are easily recognized and differentiate various subcultural groups.

Matt Hills' concept of the "cult blockbuster" involves cult followings inside larger, mainstream films. Although these are big budget, mainstream films, they still attract cult followings.

The cult fans differentiate themselves from ordinary fans in several ways: longstanding devotion to the film, distinctive interpretations, and fan works.

Hills identifies three different cult followings for The Lord of the Rings , each with their own fandom separate from the mainstream. Although the film topped the charts when it was released, it has developed a nostalgic cult following over the years.

The hammy acting by Christopher Lloyd and quotable dialogue draw a cult following, as they mimic traditional cult films.

Fans, in response to the popularity of these blockbusters, will claim elements for themselves while rejecting others. For example, in the Star Wars film series, mainstream criticism of Jar Jar Binks focused on racial stereotyping; although cult film fans will use that to bolster their arguments, he is rejected because he represents mainstream appeal and marketing.

They may also engage in behaviors more traditional for fans of cult television and other serial media, as cult blockbusters are often franchised, preconceived as a film series, or both.

This critical backlash may serve to embellish the filmmakers' reception as cult auteurs. In the same way, critics may ridicule fans of cult blockbusters as immature or shallow.

Cult films can create their own subculture. Rocky Horror , originally made to exploit the popularity of glam subculture , became what academic Gina Marchetti called a "sub-subculture", a variant that outlived its parent subculture.

If they are the majority, they may alter or ignore long-standing traditions, such as audience participation rituals; rituals which lack perceived authenticity may be criticized, but accepted rituals bring subcultural capital to veteran fans who introduce them to the newer members.

Fans who flaunt their knowledge receive negative reactions. Newer fans may cite the film itself as their reason for attending a showing, but longtime fans often cite the community.

Organized fandoms may spread and become popular as a way of introducing new people to the film, as well as theatrical screenings being privileged by the media and fandom itself.

Fandom can also be used as a process of legitimation. Unconcerned with traditional views on intellectual property, these fan works are often unsanctioned, transformative, and ignore fictional canon.

Like cult films themselves, magazines and websites dedicated to cult films revel in their self-conscious offensiveness. They maintain a sense of exclusivity by offending mainstream audiences with misogyny, gore, and racism.

Obsessive trivia can be used to bore mainstream audiences while building up subcultural capital. Specialist stores on the fringes of society or websites which prominently partner with hardcore pornographic sites can be used to reinforce the outsider nature of cult film fandom, especially when they use erotic or gory imagery.

Previous articles and controversies can also be alluded to without explanation. Casual readers and non-fans will thus be left out of discussions and debates, as they lack enough information to meaningfully contribute.

When fans like a cult film for the wrong reasons, such as casting or characters aimed at mainstream appeal, they may be ridiculed.

Thus, fandom can keep the mainstream at bay while defining themselves in terms of the " Other ", a philosophical construct divergent from social norms.

Commercial aspects of fandom such as magazines or books can also be defined in terms of "otherness" and thus valid to consume: consumers purchasing independent or niche publications are discerning consumers, but the mainstream is denigrated.

Irony or self-deprecating humor can also be used. Even within subcultures, fans who break subcultural scripts, such as denying the affectivity of a disturbing film, will be ridiculed for their lack of authenticity.

The critic Michael Medved characterized examples of the "so bad it's good" class of low-budget cult film through books such as The Golden Turkey Awards.

These films include financially fruitless and critically scorned films that have become inadvertent comedies to film buffs, such as Plan 9 from Outer Space , [1] The Room , [] and the Ugandan action-comedy film Who Killed Captain Alex?

Catching on, Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer capitalized on the film's ironic appeal and marketed it as a cult film. Films such as Rocky Horror can be misinterpreted as "weird for weirdness' sake" by people unfamiliar with the cult films that it parodies.

The rise of the Internet and on-demand films has led critics to question whether "so bad it's good" films have a future now that people have such diverse options in both availability and catalog, [] though fans eager to experience the worst films ever made can lead to lucrative showings for local theaters [] and merchandisers.

Chuck Kleinhans states that the difference between a guilty pleasure and a cult film can be as simple as the number of fans; David Church raises the question of how many people it takes to form a cult following, especially now that home video makes fans difficult to count.

Earnest fans, who recognize and accept the film's faults, can make minor celebrities of the film's cast, [] though the benefits are not always clear.

This can draw fan acclaim and obsession more readily than subtle, method -inspired acting. Smith states that the early films of John Waters are amateurish and less influential than claimed, but Waters' outrageous vision cements his place in cult cinema.

According to academic Brigid Cherry, nostalgia "is a strong element of certain kinds of cult appeal. Hunter describes cult films as "New Hollywood in extremis " and a form of nostalgia for that period.

Ernest Mathijs instead states that cult films use nostalgia as a form of resistance against progress and capitalistic ideas of a time-based economy.

Many members of its nostalgic cult following are too young to have been alive during those periods, which Emma Pett interprets as fondness for retro aesthetics, nostalgia for when they saw the film rather than when it was released, and looking to the past to find a better time period.

Other cult films, such as Streets of Fire , create a new fictional world based on nostalgic views of the past.

Author Tomas Crowder-Taraborrelli describes midnight movies as a reaction against the political and cultural conservatism in America, [] : 27 and Joan Hawkins identifies the movement as running the gamut from anarchist to libertarian , united in their anti-establishment attitude and punk aesthetic.

Midnight movies require a night life and an audience willing to invest themselves actively. Demographics shifted, and more hip and mainstream audiences were drawn to them.

Although studios expressed skepticism, large audiences were drawn to box office flops, such as Donnie Darko , The Warriors and Office Space Mainstream cinemas, eager to disassociate themselves from negative associations and increase profits, have begun abandoning midnight screenings.

Although classic midnight movies have dropped off in popularity, they still bring reliable crowds. Although seemingly at odds with each other, art and exploitation films are frequently treated as equal and interchangeable in cult fandom, listed alongside each other and described in similar terms: their ability to provoke a response.

The most exploitative aspects of art films are thus played up and their academic recognition ignored.

His persistent vision saw him received as an auteur worthy of academic study; director John Waters attributes this to Meyer's ability to create complicated, sexually charged films without resorting to explicit sex.

Mathijs and Sexton state that genre is an important part of cult films; cult films will often mix, mock, or exaggerate the tropes associated with traditional genres.

Animation can provide wide open vistas for stories. The French film Fantastic Planet explored ideas beyond the limits of traditional, live-action science fiction films.

Anime, which is frequently presented as a series with movies either rising from existing series, or spinning off series based on the film , provides its fans with alternative fictional canons and points of view that can drive fan activity.

The Ghost in the Shell films, for example, provided Japanese fans with enough bonus material and spinoffs that it encouraged cult tendencies.

Markets that did not support the sale of these materials saw less cult activity. Eventually, his work would be reassessed and cult followings, which include Quentin Tarantino and Robert Rodriguez , developed around several of his films.

Donald Liebenson of the Los Angeles Times cites the violence and sexual imagery as alienating critics, who did not know what to make of the film.

It would go on to become a popular midnight movie and frequently bootlegged by fans, as licensing issues kept it from being released on video for many years.

Sensationalistic documentaries called mondo films replicate the most shocking and transgressive elements of exploitation films.

They are usually modeled after "sick films" and cover similar subject matter. Grant states that Frank Capra 's Why We Fight World War II propaganda films are explicitly not cult, because they are "slickly made and have proven their ability to persuade an audience.

B Natural became a cult hit when it was broadcast on the satirical television show Mystery Science Theater ; [] cast member Trace Beaulieu cited these educational shorts as his favorite to mock on the show.

Mark Shiel explains the rising popularity of cult films as an attempt by cinephiles and scholars to escape the oppressive conformity and mainstream appeal of even independent film, as well as a lack of condescension in both critics and the films; [12] Academic Donna de Ville says it is a chance to subvert the dominance of academics and cinephiles.

Hunter states that "it's much easier to be a cultist now, but it is also rather more inconsequential. As far back as the s, Attack of the Killer Tomatoes was designed specifically to be a cult film, [] and The Rocky Horror Picture Show was produced by 20th Century Fox , a major Hollywood studio.

Over its decades-long release, Rocky Horror became the seventh highest grossing R-rated film when adjusted for inflation; [] journalist Matt Singer has questioned whether Rocky Horror ' s popularity invalidates its cult status.

Briggs highlights the mainstreaming of cult films by pointing out the respectful obituaries that cult directors have received from formerly hostile publications and acceptance of politically incorrect films at mainstream film festivals.

As major Hollywood studios and audiences both become savvy to cult films, productions once limited to cult appeal have instead become popular hits, and cult directors have become hot properties known for more mainstream and accessible films.

Virtual spaces, such as online forums and fan sites, replace the traditional fanzines and newsletters. Koven states that small scale screenings with friends and family can replace midnight showings.

Koven also identifies television shows, such as Twin Peaks , as retaining more traditional cult activities inside popular culture.

They sell out their shows regularly and have acquired a cult following of their own. Academic Bob Batchelor, writing in Cult Pop Culture , states that the internet has democratized cult culture and destroyed the line between cult and mainstream.

Fans of even the most obscure films can communicate online with each other in vibrant communities. Geoffrey Macnab of The Independent instead suggests that Hollywood look to capitalize on cult films, which have exploded in popularity on the internet.

Sites such as Twitter have displaced traditional venues for fandom and courted controversy from cultural critics who are unamused by campy cult films.

Their rise as "instant cult classics" bypasses the years of obscurity that most cult films labor under. Hunter identifies a prefabricated cult film style which includes "deliberately, insulting bad films", "slick exercises in dysfunction and alienation", and mainstream films "that sell themselves as worth obsessing over".

Tobias criticizes Coscarelli as trying too hard to appeal to cult audiences and sacrificing internal consistency for calculated quirkiness.

Snakes on a Plane is an example that attracted massive attention from curious fans. Uniquely, its cult following preceded the film's release and included speculative parodies of what fans imagined the film might be.

This reached the point of convergence culture when fan speculation began to impact on the film's production. In retrospect, critic Spencer Kornhaber would call it a serendipitous novelty and a footnote to a "more naive era of the Internet".

Cult films are often approached in terms of auteur theory , which states that the director's creative vision drives a film. This has fallen out of favor in academia, creating a disconnect between cult film fans and critics.

Auteur theory provided an alternative culture for cult film fans while carrying the weight of scholarship.

By requiring repeated viewings and extensive knowledge of details, auteur theory naturally appealed to cult film fans. Taylor further states that this was instrumental in allowing cult films to break through to the mainstream.

Cult films and directors may be celebrated for their transgressive content, daring, and independence, but Tompkins argues that mainstream recognition requires they be palatable to corporate interests who stand to gain much from the mainstreaming of cult film culture.

While critics may champion revolutionary aspects of filmmaking and political interpretation, Hollywood studios and other corporate interests will instead highlight only the aspects that they wish to legitimize in their own films, such as sensational exploitation.

Someone like George Romero , whose films are both transgressive and subversive, will have the transgressive aspects highlighted while the subversive aspects are ignored.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Film that has acquired a cult following. For the book by Danny Peary, see Cult Movies book.

What is a cult film? A cult film is one that has a passionate following, but does not appeal to everybody. James Bond movies are not cult films, but chainsaw movies are.

Just because a movie is a cult film does not automatically guarantee quality: some cult movies are very bad; others are very, very good.

Some make an awful lot of money at the box office; others make no money at all. Some are considered quality films; others are exploitation. See also: Z movie.

Film portal. Metro Silicon Valley. Retrieved May 3, London: BBC. Archived from the original PDF on August 21, Retrieved June 13, Retrieved July 16, BBC News Magazine.

Retrieved April 17, BBC News. Retrieved April 19, Savannah Morning News. Retrieved May 8, The Independent. Retrieved April 20, Scope Nov Archived from the original on June 23, Retrieved July 1, Retrieved April 27, In Defense of Cinephile Elitism.

What Is Cult Cinema? Bright Lights Film Journal. Retrieved American Independent Filmmaking and the Counterculture in the s". University of Nottingham May Retrieved May 13, Manchester: Manchester University Press.

Retrieved July 3, Archived from the original on August 28, Toronto Star. Retrieved May 19, Scope Archived from the original on June 22, Retrieved June 4, Electric Sheep.

Retrieved June 28, In Mathijs, Ernest; Mendik, Xavier eds. The Cult Film Reader. McGraw-Hill International. Film Threat. Retrieved April 29, Retrieved April 24, The Guardian.

Cult Cinema. Toronto Sun. The Globe and Mail. Retrieved May 14, Entertainment Weekly Retrieved November 8, Deseret News.

Retrieved May 6, University of Oregon. Retrieved May 11, The New York Times. Retrieved June 7, Turner Classic Movies. Retrieved May 17, Baltimore Sun.

Knight Ridder. June 23, Retrieved May 20, Jump Cut Retrieved May 22, Retrieved June 3, Retrieved June 19, Palgrave Macmillan. The Oklahoman.

The A. Retrieved June 5, In Egan, Kate; Thomas, Sarah eds. Retrieved June 14, Vancouver Sun. Archived from the original on April 16, The Film Journal 7.

Archived from the original on June 29, Retrieved June 24, Retrieved June 21, Sie alle sind auf ihre Weise ganz besonders und haben dadurch einen sehr hohen Wiederschauwert:.

Von diesen bösen Buben geht eine ganz besondere Faszination aus. Egal, ob sie legendäre Tänzchen hinlegen, in Banden ihre Feinden aufmischen oder uns Einblicke in die Welt der Mafia liefern.

So böse sie auch sind, viele sind uns dennoch sehr sympathisch. Die Liebe überdauert alles — und sorgt zumindest wenn beide den Film überleben für ein Happy-End.

Diese Menschen und Wesen nehmen uns mit auf ein langes Abenteuer. Bei Harry Potter haben wir den aus unserer Sicht stärksten Teil gewählt — stellvertretend für die ganze Saga, die man hier anführen könnte.

Herr der Ringe kennt inzwischen praktisch jeder auswendig — und trotzdem kann man sich dem Kampf um Mittelerde nie entziehen. Und dann gibt es da noch diesen besonders berührenden Genrevertreter.

Plus ein Fantasyfilm, der zur Weihnachtszeit einfach immer dazugehört. Diese Actionheros sind zäher wie Leder.

Egal, ob sich ihnen scheinbar unschlagbare Boxchampions, Horden von Kampfkünstlern, Terroristen, römische Kaiser, sowjetische Kampfjets, Gothams böseste Clowns oder ganze Armeen entgegenstellen — am Ende bringen sie alle zu Fall.

Yippie ya yeah, Schweinebacke! Kill Bill Vol. Sie kämpfen um Schätze, die Ehre oder einfach ums nackte Überleben.

Western gibt es wie Sand in der Wüste. Wir greifen nur vier besondere heraus. Aus der Reihe tanzt hier der Klamauk Die rechte und die linke Hand des Teufels — er steht hier stellvertretend für alle Bud Spencer und Terence Hill Filme, die einen einfach immer amüsieren, wenn sonst nichts gescheites läuft.

Und er hat Filmgeschichte geschrieben, weil er bewiesen hat, dass nicht nur brutale, ernste Spaghettiwestern ein Massenpublikum erreichen. Denn der Schrecken kommt in verschiedenen Formen — unheimlich und unheimlich gut.

Liebe auf der sinkenden Titanic, der Herzschmerz-Klassiker schlechthin. Dieser Mann im Unterleiberl erlebt jede Weihnachten eine schöne Bescherung.

Das böse Alien sitzt Sigourney Weaver im Nacken. Close Window Loading, Please Wait!

Finde auf mak-books.eu die neuesten Film-Specials. Viele Filme werden heute als „Kult“ angepriesen – doch nur wenige verdienen dieses. Wir haben sie exklusiv für euch: Die besten Filme aller Zeiten! Keine halbgaren Sachen, keine Kompromisse. Hier ist nur das Beste, was Kino zu bieten hat! - Erkunde günter os Pinnwand „Kult Filme“ auf Pinterest. Weitere Ideen zu Filme, Filmplakate, Gute filme. Herzzerreissende Liebesgeschichte, eingebettet in die Katastrophe des Untergangs der "Titanic" und zweiterfolgreichster Film aller Zeiten hinter Avatar. Min 13 Kult-Filme mit Fernweh-Garantie – versprochen! Es gibt kaum etwas Schöneres, als sich beim Filme gucken auf dem Sofa in eine andere Welt zu träumen.

The early cult horror films of Peter Jackson were so strongly associated with his homeland that they affected the international reputation of New Zealand and its cinema.

As more artistic films emerged, New Zealand was perceived as a legitimate competitor to Hollywood, which mirrored Jackson's career trajectory.

Heavenly Creatures acquired its own cult following, became a part of New Zealand's national identity, and paved the way for big-budget, Hollywood-style epics, such as Jackson's The Lord of the Rings trilogy.

Mathijs states that cult films and fandom frequently involve nontraditional elements of time and time management. Fans will often watch films obsessively, an activity that is viewed by the mainstream as wasting time yet can be seen as resisting the commodification of leisure time.

They may also watch films idiosyncratically: sped up, slowed down, frequently paused, or at odd hours.

Mathijs also identifies specific cult film viewing habits, such as viewing horror films on Halloween, sentimental melodrama on Christmas, and romantic films on Valentine's Day.

These films are often viewed as marathons where fans can gorge themselves on their favorites. These films, ritually watched every season, give a sense of community and shared nostalgia to viewers.

New films often have trouble making inroads against the institutions of It's A Wonderful Life and Miracle on 34th Street These films provide mild criticism of consumerism while encouraging family values.

Horror films have appropriated the holiday, and many horror films debut on Halloween. Mathijs criticizes the over-cultified, commercialized nature of Halloween and horror films, which feed into each other so much that Halloween has turned into an image or product with no real community.

Mathijs states that Halloween horror conventions can provide the missing community aspect. Despite their oppositional nature, cult films can produce celebrities.

Like cult films themselves, authenticity is an important aspect of their popularity. Tim Curry , despite his acknowledged range as an actor, found casting difficult after he achieved fame in The Rocky Horror Picture Show.

Even when discussing unrelated projects, interviewers frequently bring up the role, which causes him to tire of discussing it.

She was expected to recreate the transgressive elements of her cult films within the confines of mainstream cinema.

Instead of the complex gender deconstructions of her Andy Warhol films, she became typecast as a lesbian or domineering woman.

Caught between the transgressive elements of her cult film and the mainstream appeal of soft-core pornography, she was unable to work in anything but exploitation films and Emmanuelle sequels.

Despite her immense popularity and cult following, she would rate only a footnote in most histories of European cinema if she was even mentioned. Leonard Kastle , who directed The Honeymoon Killers , never directed another film again.

Transgressive films as a distinct artistic movement began in the s. Unconcerned with genre distinctions, they drew inspiration equally from the nonconformity of European art cinema and experimental film , the gritty subject matter of Italian neorealism , and the shocking images of s exploitation.

Some used hardcore pornography and horror, occasionally at the same time. In the s, filmmaker Nick Zedd identified this movement as the Cinema of Transgression and later wrote a manifesto.

Popular in midnight showings, they were mainly limited to large urban areas, which led academic Joan Hawkins to label them as "downtown culture".

These films acquired a legendary reputation as they were discussed and debated in alternative weeklies, such as The Village Voice.

Home video would finally allow general audiences to see them, which gave many people their first taste of underground film. According to Mathijs, critical reception is important to a film's perception as cult, through topicality and controversy.

Topicality, which can be regional such as objection to government funding of the film or critical such as philosophical objections to the themes , enables attention and a contextual response.

Cultural topics make the film relevant and can lead to controversy, such as a moral panic , which provides opposition. Cultural values transgressed in the film, such as sexual promiscuity, can be attacked by proxy, through attacks on the film.

These concerns can vary from culture to culture, and they need not be at all similar. However, Mathijs says the film must invoke metacommentary for it to be more than simply culturally important.

While referencing previous arguments, critics may attack its choice of genre or its very right to exist.

Taking stances on these varied issues, critics assure their own relevance while helping to elevate the film to cult status.

Briggs would later contribute a commentary track to the DVD release in which he describes it as a feminist film. Academic Peter Hutchings, noting the many definitions of a cult film that require transgressive elements, states that cult films are known in part for their excesses.

Both subject matter and its depiction are portrayed in extreme ways that break taboos of good taste and aesthetic norms. Violence, gore, sexual perversity, and even the music can be pushed to stylistic excess far beyond that allowed by mainstream cinema.

Film censorship can make these films obscure and difficult to find, common criteria used to define cult films.

Despite this, these films remain well-known and prized among collectors. Fans will occasionally express frustration with dismissive critics and conventional analysis, which they believe marginalizes and misinterprets paracinema.

Frank Henenlotter faced censorship and ridicule, but he found acceptance among audiences receptive to themes that Hollywood was reluctant to touch, such as violence, drug addiction, and misogyny.

Despite featuring an abundance of fake blood, vomit, and diarrhea, Kaufman's films have attracted positive attention from critics and academics.

Films that are influenced by unpopular styles or genres can become cult films. Influenced by American films and early French fantasists, he drifted between art, exploitation, and pornography.

His films were reviled by critics, but he retained a cult following drawn by the nudity and eroticism. Popular among fans of European horror for their subversiveness and obscurity, these later Spanish films allowed political dissidents to criticize the fascist regime within the cloak of exploitation and horror.

Unlike most exploitation directors, they were not trying to establish a reputation. They were already established in the art-house world and intentionally chose to work within paracinema as a reaction against the New Spanish Cinema , an artistic revival supported by the fascists.

Takashi Miike has been marketed in the West as a shocking and avant-garde filmmaker despite his many family-friendly comedies, which have not been imported.

The transgressive nature of cult films can lead to their censorship. During the s and early s, a wave of explicit, graphic exploitation films caused controversy.

Called " video nasties " within the UK, they ignited calls for censorship and stricter laws on home video releases, which were largely unregulated.

Marketing campaigns have also used such claims to raise interest among curious audiences. Cult films previously banned are sometimes released with much fanfare and the fans assumed to be already familiar with the controversy.

Personal responsibility is often highlighted, and a strong anti-censorship message may be present. Academics have written of how transgressive themes in cult films can be regressive.

David Church and Chuck Kleinhans describe an uncritical celebration of transgressive themes in cult films, including misogyny and racism.

Knowledgeable about feminism and multiculturalism, they seek a refuge from the academic acceptance of these progressive ideals.

Their playful and ironic acceptance of regressive lad culture invites, and even dares, condemnation from academics and the uncool.

Thus, cult films become a tool to reinforce mainstream values through transgressive content; [79] Rebecca Feasy states that cultural hierarchies can also be reaffirmed through mockery of films perceived to be lacking masculinity.

Wishman's subject matter, though exploitative and transgressive, was always framed in terms of female empowerment and the feminine spectator.

They attracted both acclaim and denouncement from critics and progressives. Cult films can be used to help define or create groups as a form of subcultural capital ; knowledge of cult films proves that one is "authentic" or "non-mainstream".

They can be used to provoke an outraged response from the mainstream, which further defines the subculture, as only members could possibly tolerate such deviant entertainment.

This can be done for authenticity, such as horror fans who seek out now-obscure titles from the s instead of the modern, well-known remakes.

Authenticity can also drive fans to decry the mainstream in the form of hostile critics and censors. A film can become the object of a cult following within a particular region or culture if it has unusual significance.

Similarly, James Dean and his brief film career have become icons of alienated youth. Beach party musicals, popular among American surfers, failed to find an equivalent audience when imported to the United Kingdom.

When films target subcultures like this, they may seem unintelligible without the proper cultural capital.

Films which appeal to teenagers may offer subcultural identities that are easily recognized and differentiate various subcultural groups.

Matt Hills' concept of the "cult blockbuster" involves cult followings inside larger, mainstream films.

Although these are big budget, mainstream films, they still attract cult followings. The cult fans differentiate themselves from ordinary fans in several ways: longstanding devotion to the film, distinctive interpretations, and fan works.

Hills identifies three different cult followings for The Lord of the Rings , each with their own fandom separate from the mainstream. Although the film topped the charts when it was released, it has developed a nostalgic cult following over the years.

The hammy acting by Christopher Lloyd and quotable dialogue draw a cult following, as they mimic traditional cult films. Fans, in response to the popularity of these blockbusters, will claim elements for themselves while rejecting others.

For example, in the Star Wars film series, mainstream criticism of Jar Jar Binks focused on racial stereotyping; although cult film fans will use that to bolster their arguments, he is rejected because he represents mainstream appeal and marketing.

They may also engage in behaviors more traditional for fans of cult television and other serial media, as cult blockbusters are often franchised, preconceived as a film series, or both.

This critical backlash may serve to embellish the filmmakers' reception as cult auteurs. In the same way, critics may ridicule fans of cult blockbusters as immature or shallow.

Cult films can create their own subculture. Rocky Horror , originally made to exploit the popularity of glam subculture , became what academic Gina Marchetti called a "sub-subculture", a variant that outlived its parent subculture.

If they are the majority, they may alter or ignore long-standing traditions, such as audience participation rituals; rituals which lack perceived authenticity may be criticized, but accepted rituals bring subcultural capital to veteran fans who introduce them to the newer members.

Fans who flaunt their knowledge receive negative reactions. Newer fans may cite the film itself as their reason for attending a showing, but longtime fans often cite the community.

Organized fandoms may spread and become popular as a way of introducing new people to the film, as well as theatrical screenings being privileged by the media and fandom itself.

Fandom can also be used as a process of legitimation. Unconcerned with traditional views on intellectual property, these fan works are often unsanctioned, transformative, and ignore fictional canon.

Like cult films themselves, magazines and websites dedicated to cult films revel in their self-conscious offensiveness. They maintain a sense of exclusivity by offending mainstream audiences with misogyny, gore, and racism.

Obsessive trivia can be used to bore mainstream audiences while building up subcultural capital. Specialist stores on the fringes of society or websites which prominently partner with hardcore pornographic sites can be used to reinforce the outsider nature of cult film fandom, especially when they use erotic or gory imagery.

Previous articles and controversies can also be alluded to without explanation. Casual readers and non-fans will thus be left out of discussions and debates, as they lack enough information to meaningfully contribute.

When fans like a cult film for the wrong reasons, such as casting or characters aimed at mainstream appeal, they may be ridiculed. Thus, fandom can keep the mainstream at bay while defining themselves in terms of the " Other ", a philosophical construct divergent from social norms.

Commercial aspects of fandom such as magazines or books can also be defined in terms of "otherness" and thus valid to consume: consumers purchasing independent or niche publications are discerning consumers, but the mainstream is denigrated.

Irony or self-deprecating humor can also be used. Even within subcultures, fans who break subcultural scripts, such as denying the affectivity of a disturbing film, will be ridiculed for their lack of authenticity.

The critic Michael Medved characterized examples of the "so bad it's good" class of low-budget cult film through books such as The Golden Turkey Awards.

These films include financially fruitless and critically scorned films that have become inadvertent comedies to film buffs, such as Plan 9 from Outer Space , [1] The Room , [] and the Ugandan action-comedy film Who Killed Captain Alex?

Catching on, Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer capitalized on the film's ironic appeal and marketed it as a cult film. Films such as Rocky Horror can be misinterpreted as "weird for weirdness' sake" by people unfamiliar with the cult films that it parodies.

The rise of the Internet and on-demand films has led critics to question whether "so bad it's good" films have a future now that people have such diverse options in both availability and catalog, [] though fans eager to experience the worst films ever made can lead to lucrative showings for local theaters [] and merchandisers.

Chuck Kleinhans states that the difference between a guilty pleasure and a cult film can be as simple as the number of fans; David Church raises the question of how many people it takes to form a cult following, especially now that home video makes fans difficult to count.

Earnest fans, who recognize and accept the film's faults, can make minor celebrities of the film's cast, [] though the benefits are not always clear.

This can draw fan acclaim and obsession more readily than subtle, method -inspired acting. Smith states that the early films of John Waters are amateurish and less influential than claimed, but Waters' outrageous vision cements his place in cult cinema.

According to academic Brigid Cherry, nostalgia "is a strong element of certain kinds of cult appeal. Hunter describes cult films as "New Hollywood in extremis " and a form of nostalgia for that period.

Ernest Mathijs instead states that cult films use nostalgia as a form of resistance against progress and capitalistic ideas of a time-based economy.

Many members of its nostalgic cult following are too young to have been alive during those periods, which Emma Pett interprets as fondness for retro aesthetics, nostalgia for when they saw the film rather than when it was released, and looking to the past to find a better time period.

Other cult films, such as Streets of Fire , create a new fictional world based on nostalgic views of the past. Author Tomas Crowder-Taraborrelli describes midnight movies as a reaction against the political and cultural conservatism in America, [] : 27 and Joan Hawkins identifies the movement as running the gamut from anarchist to libertarian , united in their anti-establishment attitude and punk aesthetic.

Midnight movies require a night life and an audience willing to invest themselves actively. Demographics shifted, and more hip and mainstream audiences were drawn to them.

Although studios expressed skepticism, large audiences were drawn to box office flops, such as Donnie Darko , The Warriors and Office Space Mainstream cinemas, eager to disassociate themselves from negative associations and increase profits, have begun abandoning midnight screenings.

Although classic midnight movies have dropped off in popularity, they still bring reliable crowds. Although seemingly at odds with each other, art and exploitation films are frequently treated as equal and interchangeable in cult fandom, listed alongside each other and described in similar terms: their ability to provoke a response.

The most exploitative aspects of art films are thus played up and their academic recognition ignored. His persistent vision saw him received as an auteur worthy of academic study; director John Waters attributes this to Meyer's ability to create complicated, sexually charged films without resorting to explicit sex.

Mathijs and Sexton state that genre is an important part of cult films; cult films will often mix, mock, or exaggerate the tropes associated with traditional genres.

Animation can provide wide open vistas for stories. The French film Fantastic Planet explored ideas beyond the limits of traditional, live-action science fiction films.

Anime, which is frequently presented as a series with movies either rising from existing series, or spinning off series based on the film , provides its fans with alternative fictional canons and points of view that can drive fan activity.

The Ghost in the Shell films, for example, provided Japanese fans with enough bonus material and spinoffs that it encouraged cult tendencies.

Markets that did not support the sale of these materials saw less cult activity. Eventually, his work would be reassessed and cult followings, which include Quentin Tarantino and Robert Rodriguez , developed around several of his films.

Donald Liebenson of the Los Angeles Times cites the violence and sexual imagery as alienating critics, who did not know what to make of the film.

It would go on to become a popular midnight movie and frequently bootlegged by fans, as licensing issues kept it from being released on video for many years.

Sensationalistic documentaries called mondo films replicate the most shocking and transgressive elements of exploitation films. They are usually modeled after "sick films" and cover similar subject matter.

Grant states that Frank Capra 's Why We Fight World War II propaganda films are explicitly not cult, because they are "slickly made and have proven their ability to persuade an audience.

B Natural became a cult hit when it was broadcast on the satirical television show Mystery Science Theater ; [] cast member Trace Beaulieu cited these educational shorts as his favorite to mock on the show.

Mark Shiel explains the rising popularity of cult films as an attempt by cinephiles and scholars to escape the oppressive conformity and mainstream appeal of even independent film, as well as a lack of condescension in both critics and the films; [12] Academic Donna de Ville says it is a chance to subvert the dominance of academics and cinephiles.

Hunter states that "it's much easier to be a cultist now, but it is also rather more inconsequential. As far back as the s, Attack of the Killer Tomatoes was designed specifically to be a cult film, [] and The Rocky Horror Picture Show was produced by 20th Century Fox , a major Hollywood studio.

Over its decades-long release, Rocky Horror became the seventh highest grossing R-rated film when adjusted for inflation; [] journalist Matt Singer has questioned whether Rocky Horror ' s popularity invalidates its cult status.

Briggs highlights the mainstreaming of cult films by pointing out the respectful obituaries that cult directors have received from formerly hostile publications and acceptance of politically incorrect films at mainstream film festivals.

As major Hollywood studios and audiences both become savvy to cult films, productions once limited to cult appeal have instead become popular hits, and cult directors have become hot properties known for more mainstream and accessible films.

Virtual spaces, such as online forums and fan sites, replace the traditional fanzines and newsletters. Koven states that small scale screenings with friends and family can replace midnight showings.

Koven also identifies television shows, such as Twin Peaks , as retaining more traditional cult activities inside popular culture.

They sell out their shows regularly and have acquired a cult following of their own. Academic Bob Batchelor, writing in Cult Pop Culture , states that the internet has democratized cult culture and destroyed the line between cult and mainstream.

Fans of even the most obscure films can communicate online with each other in vibrant communities. Geoffrey Macnab of The Independent instead suggests that Hollywood look to capitalize on cult films, which have exploded in popularity on the internet.

Sites such as Twitter have displaced traditional venues for fandom and courted controversy from cultural critics who are unamused by campy cult films.

Their rise as "instant cult classics" bypasses the years of obscurity that most cult films labor under. Hunter identifies a prefabricated cult film style which includes "deliberately, insulting bad films", "slick exercises in dysfunction and alienation", and mainstream films "that sell themselves as worth obsessing over".

Tobias criticizes Coscarelli as trying too hard to appeal to cult audiences and sacrificing internal consistency for calculated quirkiness.

Snakes on a Plane is an example that attracted massive attention from curious fans. Uniquely, its cult following preceded the film's release and included speculative parodies of what fans imagined the film might be.

This reached the point of convergence culture when fan speculation began to impact on the film's production. In retrospect, critic Spencer Kornhaber would call it a serendipitous novelty and a footnote to a "more naive era of the Internet".

Cult films are often approached in terms of auteur theory , which states that the director's creative vision drives a film.

This has fallen out of favor in academia, creating a disconnect between cult film fans and critics. Auteur theory provided an alternative culture for cult film fans while carrying the weight of scholarship.

By requiring repeated viewings and extensive knowledge of details, auteur theory naturally appealed to cult film fans.

Taylor further states that this was instrumental in allowing cult films to break through to the mainstream.

Cult films and directors may be celebrated for their transgressive content, daring, and independence, but Tompkins argues that mainstream recognition requires they be palatable to corporate interests who stand to gain much from the mainstreaming of cult film culture.

While critics may champion revolutionary aspects of filmmaking and political interpretation, Hollywood studios and other corporate interests will instead highlight only the aspects that they wish to legitimize in their own films, such as sensational exploitation.

Someone like George Romero , whose films are both transgressive and subversive, will have the transgressive aspects highlighted while the subversive aspects are ignored.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Film that has acquired a cult following. For the book by Danny Peary, see Cult Movies book.

What is a cult film? A cult film is one that has a passionate following, but does not appeal to everybody.

James Bond movies are not cult films, but chainsaw movies are. Just because a movie is a cult film does not automatically guarantee quality: some cult movies are very bad; others are very, very good.

Some make an awful lot of money at the box office; others make no money at all. Some are considered quality films; others are exploitation. See also: Z movie.

Film portal. Metro Silicon Valley. Retrieved May 3, London: BBC. Archived from the original PDF on August 21, Retrieved June 13, Retrieved July 16, BBC News Magazine.

Retrieved April 17, BBC News. Retrieved April 19, Savannah Morning News. Retrieved May 8, The Independent.

Retrieved April 20, Scope Nov Archived from the original on June 23, Retrieved July 1, Retrieved April 27, In Defense of Cinephile Elitism.

What Is Cult Cinema? Bright Lights Film Journal. Retrieved American Independent Filmmaking and the Counterculture in the s". University of Nottingham May Retrieved May 13, Manchester: Manchester University Press.

Retrieved July 3, Archived from the original on August 28, Toronto Star. Retrieved May 19, Scope Sie sind so zeitlos gut, dass die Effekte auch heute noch sehr ansehnlich sind.

Matrix beispielsweise war seiner Zeit damals weit voraus. Ebenso Terminator 2. Mit Alien hat die Filmreihe gemein, dass die ersten beiden Teile weit über allen anderen Ablegern stehen.

Und dann gibt es diese Filme, die uns berühren wie kaum andere. Ungerechtigkeiten, die zum Himmel schreien.

Always look on the bright side of Life. Diese Unterkategorie ist gespickt mit ganz speziellen Kultfilmen. Ja, manchmal bleibt einem bei ihnen das Lachen im Hals stecken.

Sie alle sind auf ihre Weise ganz besonders und haben dadurch einen sehr hohen Wiederschauwert:. Von diesen bösen Buben geht eine ganz besondere Faszination aus.

Egal, ob sie legendäre Tänzchen hinlegen, in Banden ihre Feinden aufmischen oder uns Einblicke in die Welt der Mafia liefern.

So böse sie auch sind, viele sind uns dennoch sehr sympathisch. Die Liebe überdauert alles — und sorgt zumindest wenn beide den Film überleben für ein Happy-End.

Diese Menschen und Wesen nehmen uns mit auf ein langes Abenteuer. Bei Harry Potter haben wir den aus unserer Sicht stärksten Teil gewählt — stellvertretend für die ganze Saga, die man hier anführen könnte.

Herr der Ringe kennt inzwischen praktisch jeder auswendig — und trotzdem kann man sich dem Kampf um Mittelerde nie entziehen. Und dann gibt es da noch diesen besonders berührenden Genrevertreter.

Plus ein Fantasyfilm, der zur Weihnachtszeit einfach immer dazugehört. Diese Actionheros sind zäher wie Leder. Egal, ob sich ihnen scheinbar unschlagbare Boxchampions, Horden von Kampfkünstlern, Terroristen, römische Kaiser, sowjetische Kampfjets, Gothams böseste Clowns oder ganze Armeen entgegenstellen — am Ende bringen sie alle zu Fall.

Yippie ya yeah, Schweinebacke! Kill Bill Vol. Sie kämpfen um Schätze, die Ehre oder einfach ums nackte Überleben.

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DIE BESTEN FILME ALLER ZEITEN - Diese Filme muss man gesehen haben In Tasha De Vasconcelos, Lucy; Wheatley, Catherine eds. Intensities 5. Retrieved October Hacksaw Ridge Streamcloud, Commercial aspects of fandom such as magazines or books can also be defined in terms of "otherness" and thus valid to consume: consumers purchasing independent or niche publications are discerning consumers, but the mainstream In Stürmischen Zeiten denigrated. Denn der Schrecken kommt in verschiedenen Formen — unheimlich und unheimlich gut. Tribune Broadcasting. Despite this, these films remain well-known and prized among collectors. Gunzenhausen Kino topics make the film relevant and can lead Fack Ju Göhte English controversy, such as a moral panicwhich provides opposition. Egal, ob sie legendäre Tänzchen hinlegen, in Banden ihre Feinden aufmischen oder uns Einblicke in die Welt der Mafia liefern. Films such as Rocky Horror can be Tvn.Hu as "weird for weirdness' sake" by people unfamiliar with the cult films that it parodies. Retrieved Freiluftkino 19, American science fiction film and television. October 5, Cult films are known for their dedicated, passionate fanbase which forms an elaborate subculture that engage in repeated viewings, quoting dialogue, and audience participation. Some are considered quality films; others are exploitation. Kult Filme Kult Filme Historical Fantasy 1. Der neue Tilda von Quentin Tarantino Jonalu Gespensterjagd die Fans glücklich machen. Klassischer Western 3. Biopic After Passion Stream Deutsch

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Die BESTEN Filme der 90er! - Top-Liste (Teil 1) Konzertfilm 3. Exorzistenfilm 1. Coming Out 3. Tanzfilm Sozialstudie 1. Andere bingen Schatz Englisch, wir trinken Feierabendserien.

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