Gerd Kassel

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Gerd Kassel

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Gerd Kassel

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Berghahn Books, New York, Oxford Stieler von Heydekamp, Gerd, industrialist. Dictionary of German Biography English translation.

Saur Verlag GmbH, München. Deutschlands Rüstung im Zweiten Weltkrieg. Hitlers Konferenzen mit Albert Speer — Akademische Verlagsgesellschaft Athenaion, Frankfurt am Main.

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Despite fierce resistance in places, the Germans were forced back from the West Wall during February, and a series of Allied offensives, rolling from north to south, drove across the Rhineland towards the great river.

Rundstedt had been aware as early as September of the importance of the many bridges over the Rhine, and of the necessity of denying them to the enemy.

He made careful plans for the bridges to be blown up if the enemy reached the Rhine. This could hardly be blamed on Rundstedt, but he was the commander and Hitler needed a scapegoat.

On 9 March Hitler phoned Rundstedt and told him he was to be replaced by Albert Kesselring , to be transferred from Italy. That was the end of Gerd von Rundstedt's military career after 52 years.

On 11 March Rundstedt had a final audience with Hitler, who thanked him for his loyalty. He then returned to his home in Kassel, but bombing and the Allied advance into western Germany made him decide to move his family, first to Solz, a village south of Kassel, then to Weimar , then to Bayreuth , and finally back to the sanatorium at Bad Tölz where he had stayed several times before.

Rundstedt's heart condition had worsened and he also suffered from arthritis. There was no attempt at further escape: Rundstedt, accompanied by Bila and Hans Gerd and a few staff, stayed at Bad Tölz until it was occupied by American forces on 1 May, the day after Hitler's suicide in Berlin.

That evening he was made a prisoner of war by troops from the 36th Infantry Division. Privately with other generals he referred to Hitler as that Bohemian corporal.

Out of consideration for his rank and state of health, Hans Gerd was allowed to accompany him. At the end of May they were moved to an American detention centre at Wiesbaden.

Here Rundstedt was extensively questioned by U. Army interrogators about his career and actions during the war.

During this period decisions were being made about which German leaders were to be put on trial for war crimes at the Nuremberg Trials.

Rundstedt was the most senior German officer in Allied custody. He was accused of responsibility for war crimes in Poland the shooting of surrendered soldiers in , the Soviet Union the actions of the Einsatzgruppen in , Britain the Commando Order of and France the Oradour massacre of In July Rundstedt was handed over to British custody.

The British climate badly affected his arthritis, making him increasingly lame. His heart condition became worse and he was periodically depressed.

One interviewer wrote: "A limp, exhausted body racked by constant pain due to weakened arteries is now the remnant of the relentless figure that once waved a Marshal's baton.

Liddell Hart and Rundstedt developed a close rapport, and the relationship was to prove very valuable to Rundstedt over the next few years.

Liddell Hart wrote of him: "Rundstedt makes an increasingly favourable impression on me He is dignified without being arrogant, and essentially aristocratic in outlook.

When Rundstedt learned that he was not to be tried personally at Nuremberg, he wrote to the Tribunal asking permission to appear as a defence witness for the Army high command.

In May he was summoned to appear. When he left Island Farm , all the senior officers being held there lined up to salute him.

Rundstedt was adamant that the high command played no part in the decisions to invade Poland, Norway, France or the Soviet Union.

He insisted that the Army had obeyed the laws of war and was not responsible for the actions of the Einsatzgruppen.

He also denied that the Army had deliberately starved three million Soviet prisoners-of-war to death in — He insisted that military law was "always binding for us older leaders", and that officers who broke these laws were court-martialled.

He stated: "As senior soldier of the German Army, I will say this: we accused leaders were trained in the old soldierly traditions of decency and chivalry.

We lived and acted according to them, and we endeavoured to hand them down to the younger officers. Senior commanders discussed only operational matters, he said: political and strategic questions were decided by Hitler and the OKW.

Rundstedt made a good impression as a witness. Calvocoressi later commented: "He was not going to let on how much he and his colleagues had known or done.

He did this well — or anyway successfully. Keitel and Jodl were to hang, but the Army high command as a whole was acquitted. The verdict read: "According to the indictment, this group consists of about officers who held certain positions in the military hierarchy between and The Tribunal does not find that they were an organisation They were only an aggregation of those who happened to hold high rank in a certain period These men have, however, been a disgrace to the profession of arms, and they have made a mockery of obedience to orders.

They were a ruthless military caste, and where guilty of crimes should be brought to trial as individuals. Rundstedt returned to Island Farm to await developments.

Otto John , a German lawyer who had been active in the German resistance, arrived in October to interview the prisoners and make recommendations on possible future war crimes prosecutions.

John and Rundstedt got on well, and in November John arranged for Hans Gerd von Rundstedt, who was suffering from the early stages of throat cancer, to be released and sent home.

All four were in British custody. In August Telford Taylor , the U. The grounds for the prosecution would be the Commissar Order of , the Commando Order of , the murder of Soviet prisoners-of-war, the conscription and deportation of civilians in occupied countries as forced labour , and the responsibility of the named officers for the invasions of Poland, France, Yugoslavia, the Soviet Union and other countries.

The British, however, were extremely reluctant to act. British public opinion had rapidly shifted as it did after World War I away from anti-German sentiment towards a desire for reconciliation.

There was a strong feeling that putting elderly and sick men on trial three years after the war was unjust. There was also the fact that many of the events referred to by the Americans had taken place in the Soviet Union and Poland, which were now, with the onset of the Cold War , political adversaries and no longer co-operating with western war crimes investigations.

He wrote: "We are apparently prepared to send these men, including one who is 73, to trial by the Americans. I frankly do not like this.

I feel that if the Americans wish to be critical in our inaction in trying war criminals, I should prefer that they should continue to criticise rather than that we should commit an injustice in order to avoid their criticism.

Rundstedt and the other officers knew nothing of the proposed prosecutions. In June his son Hans Gerd had been admitted to hospital and it soon became apparent that his cancer was inoperable.

In December Rundstedt was granted compassionate leave by the British government to visit the hospital in Hannover where Hans Gerd was being treated.

On Christmas Day he saw his wife for the first time since May , and his grandchildren for the first time since Hans Gerd died on 12 January "a blow from which he never really recovered.

The doctors reported "a markedly senile general physique", chronic arterio-sclerosis, osteo-arthritis in most of his joints, and failing memory.

The examiners advised that to put him on trial would "adversely affect his health. Bevin was put in a quandary, fearing the reactions of countries such as France and Belgium if Rundstedt were to be released.

Meanwhile, the Americans had requested that Rundstedt and Manstein be brought to Nuremberg to appear as a witness in the High Command Trial , in which a number of prominent generals, including Leeb, Blaskowitz who committed suicide during the trial , Hugo Sperrle , Georg von Küchler and Hermann Hoth were on trial for war crimes.

On 22 July Rundstedt left the hospital and the next day he and Manstein were flown to Nuremberg. But the presiding judge in the case ruled that he would not allow Rundstedt or Manstein to testify unless they were first informed whether they were themselves in danger of prosecution.

Thus Rundstedt and Manstein discovered for the first time that the Americans had requested their indictment.

As a result, they refused to testify. They were then transferred to a military hospital near Munster. Here conditions were so bad that Brauchitsch went on a hunger strike.

In August the matter become public when Liddell Hart launched a press campaign to have the four officers released.

On 27 August the government responded by formally announcing that the four would be tried by a British military court in Hamburg.

Items in Rundstedt's indictment included: "the maltreatment and killing of civilians and prisoners of war It was here that Brauchitsch died suddenly of heart failure on 18 October.

This led to a renewed outcry in Britain for the trial to be abandoned. Nevertheless, Bevin was determined to press ahead, and on 1 January Rundstedt, Manstein and Strauss were formally charged.

Hugo Laternser was engaged as Rundstedt's counsel, and Liddell Hart and others in Britain collected material for the defence. The Bishop of Chichester, George Bell , announced that he would bring in a motion in the House of Lords critical of the government.

This was a serious threat since the Lords had the power to compel the government to produce documents. By April the public debate in Britain was becoming so damaging that the government decided that the best option was to back down as gracefully as it could.

The government's resolve was stiffened by the refusal of the Soviet government to provide any evidence for the trial. Further medical reports were commissioned, with varying results.

A team of British Army doctors eventually reported that Rundstedt and Strauss were unfit to stand trial, and the government used this as a pretext to abandon the trial.

On 28 April Cabinet considered the medical reports, and asked the Lord Chancellor, Lord Jowitt , to prepare a report for its next meeting. On 5 May Cabinet accepted his recommendation that Rundstedt and Strauss be released, but that Manstein's trial should go ahead.

Rundstedt was now a free man after four years in custody, but it brought him little joy. He had no home, no money and no income.

The family home in Kassel had been requisitioned by the Americans, and the Rundstedt estate in Saxony-Anhalt was in the Soviet Zone and had been confiscated.

His wife was living in Solz , but this was in the American Zone, where he could not travel because the Americans who were displeased by the British decision to release him still regarded him as a Class 1 war criminal under the denazification laws then in force.

Likewise, his money, in a bank account in Kassel, was frozen because of his classification, which also denied him a military pension.

The British had assured him that he would not be arrested or extradited if he stayed in the British Zone, but the Americans had made no such guarantee.

Meanwhile, Rundstedt was in a hospital in Hannover with nowhere to live, and the new SPD administration in Lower Saxony had no interest in helping ex-Field Marshals of the Third Reich at a time when there was an acute housing shortage across Germany.

In Rundstedt was granted a military pension by the West German government. In the last years of his life Rundstedt became a subject of increasing interest and was interviewed by various writers and historians.

His former chief of staff, Günther Blumentritt, visited him frequently, and began work on an apologetic biography, which was published in In he was portrayed sympathetically by Leo G.

Carroll in a film about Rommel, The Desert Fox. Bila died on 4 October ; Rundstedt died of heart failure on 24 February in Hannover.

He had already been at retirement age when the Second World War began. He was buried in the Cemetery of Stöckener.

Rundstedt's defence at the trial was that as a soldier he had a duty to obey the orders of the legitimate government, whoever that was, and whatever the orders were.

He would have fully agreed with Manstein's remark to Rudolf von Gersdorff : "Preussische Feldmarschälle meutern nicht! Since the charges brought against Manstein were almost identical to those brought against Rundstedt, it is worth quoting the remarks made by the prosecutor at Manstein's trial, Sir Arthur Comyns Carr : "Contemporary German militarism flourished briefly with its recent ally, National Socialism, as well as or better than it had in the generals of the past.

Many of these have made a mockery of the soldier's oath of obedience to military orders. When it suits their purpose they say they had to obey; when confronted with Hitler's brutal crimes which are shown to have been within their general knowledge, they say they disobeyed.

The truth is they actively participated in all these crimes, or sat silent and acquiescent, witnessing the commission of crimes on a scale larger and more shocking than the world has ever had the misfortune to know.

Rundstedt was left in no doubt by Hitler and Himmler what German occupation would mean for the people of Poland and the Soviet Union, yet he applied his military talents to the conquest of both countries.

He approved of the Reichenau Order or Severity Order and must have known what it portended for the Jews of Ukraine, yet "sat silent and acquiescent" while the Einsatzgruppen did their work.

He claimed that the Army would have liked to feed the three million Soviet POWs, yet he apparently took no interest in their fate once they were taken to the rear.

He asserted that he had an absolute duty as an officer to obey orders, yet claimed to have disobeyed both the Commissar Order in Russia and the Commando Order in France.

These inconsistencies were exposed both at Nuremberg, in the trials of the Einsatzgruppen leaders who also claimed they had a duty to obey distasteful orders and in the trials of senior officers, and in Manstein's trial in They would certainly also have been exposed if Rundstedt had come to trial.

On this basis his biographer concludes: "If Rundstedt had stood trial, it is clear from the Manstein case that he would have been found guilty of some of the charges levelled against him.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. See battles. Luise "Bila" Agathe Marie von Götz. Main article: German mistreatment of Soviet prisoners of war.

Main article: Einsatzgruppen. See also Wilmot p. Fritsch was eventually exonerated by a Court of Honour, but was not re-instated. This quote is a paraphrase of Hitler's actual words, as recorded in General Halder's diary.

Liddell-Hart's views were based on extensive interviews with former German Army commanders, notably Rundstedt, with whom he developed a close relationship.

Rundstedt was actually in Ukraine, not Russia, but like most Germans of this period he drew no distinction.

The Soviets had suffered many more, but they had a larger population to recruit from, and could train new recruits quicker and more cheaply.

Rundstedt's letter was not a resignation, but an invitation to Hitler to dismiss him if he had lost confidence in him. Lammers administered the system of bonuses, which was, as he said, a system dating back to Frederick the Great.

He said Rundstedt was also given an estate near Breslau in Silesia, but no other source mentions this. The Rundstedt family did not access the money, by then considerably devalued, until Fest, Plotting Hitler's Death , p.

Hoffmann, Stauffenberg , p. The approaches were probably made through Rundstedt's aide-de-camp, Hans-Viktor von Salviati, who was later executed for his role in the anti-Hitler plot.

Wilmot's account is based on conversations with Blumentritt and General Hans Speidel , who were both present. Blumentritt seems to have given several versions of the story to postwar questioners.

But Messenger, p. In October he committed suicide rather than face charges of complicity in the 20 July plot. He was paroled on medical grounds in August Self-government in the German states had been restored in Lower Saxony became an SPD stronghold, and the government's attitude reflected the strong anti-militarist mood in Germany in the wake of the war.

The Minister-President, Hinrich Kopf , said he "would not lift a finger for a war criminal. Ambrose, Stephen Von Rundstedt: The Man and the Soldier.

Odhams Press. This book is of historical interest as the first biography of Rundstedt, written by one of his close associates, but it is not a reliable historical source.

Browning, Christopher Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press. Barbarossa: The Russian-German Conflict — William Morrow.

Clark, Christopher London: Allen Lane. Faber, David Nazi Germany and the Jews, — New York: Harper Perennial. Ostkrieg: Hitler's War of Extermination in the East.

Archived from the original on 29 March Retrieved 15 February New York: Metropolitan Books. Hamburg Institute for Social Research New York: New Press.

Hargreaves, Richard The Germans in Normandy. Mechanicsburg, PA: Stackpole Books. New York: Berghahn Books. Hastings, Max London: Pan.

Hillgruber, Andreas In Marrus, Michael ed. The Nazi Holocaust. Westpoint, CT: Meckler. Stauffenberg: A Family History, — Disobedience and Conspiracy in the German Army, — Foreword by Peter Loewenberg.

Jefferson, N. Kershaw, Ian Hitler, — Nemesis. New York; London: W. Shepperton: Ian Allan. Liddell-Hart, Basil The German Generals Talk.

The Other Side of the Hill. Beckett ed. Rommel Reconsidered. Heinrich Himmler: A Life. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

London: Robinson. Mawdsley, Evan London: Hodder Arnold. London: Phoenix. New York: Pantheon. Berghahn Books.

Neillands, Robin London: Cassell Military. O'Neill, Robert The German Army and the Nazi Party. Overy, R New York: Penguin Books.

Paxton, Robert Columbia University Press. London: Headline Review. Reynolds, Michael Rhodes, Richard Mit dem Thema "Sponsoring" beschäftigt sich besonders die Seite.

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