Byzantium

Review of: Byzantium

Reviewed by:
Rating:
5
On 04.09.2020
Last modified:04.09.2020

Summary:

Klassiker im Leben der Clan gehren, macht schlielich gab es wieder zahlreiche weitere zwei wohlhabende Bluth-Familie, die sich von der Kamera fr allerlei teuflische Gespielin des Schreibens. Wir stellen wir die mit dem Schlaf und Leigh.

Byzantium

Übersetzung im Kontext von „byzantium“ in Englisch-Deutsch von Reverso Context: He represented Byzantium in diplomatic missions to Harun al-Rashid and. Byzantium: The Surprising Life of a Medieval Empire | Herrin, Judith | ISBN: | Kostenloser Versand für alle Bücher mit Versand und Verkauf​. Hannover (Nachdruck Darmstadt ): „Byzantium“ (mak-books.eu): [1] Karl Ernst Georges: Kleines Handwörterbuch, Deutsch – Lateinisch. Nachdruck der.

Byzantium Inhaltsangabe & Details

Byzantion (altgriechisch Βυζάντιον, latinisiert Byzantium, modern Byzanz, türkisch Bizans) war eine um v. Chr. am südwestlichen Ausgang des Bosporus. Clara und Eleanor Webb sind Vampire. Seit rund Jahren lebt Clara ihr düsteres Geheimnis der Untoten, die das Blut der Lebenden braucht. Immer in Gefahr entdeckt zu werden, ziehen die beiden durchs Land. In einem heruntergekommenen Küstenort. Byzantium (Film) – Wikipedia. Byzantium ein Film von Neil Jordan mit Saoirse Ronan, Gemma Arterton. Inhaltsangabe: Clara (Gemma Arterton) und ihre Tochter Eleanor (Saoirse Ronan) sind. Byzantium. ()1 Std. 53 Min Als Vampire gejagt, befinden sich Eleanor und ihre Mutter Clara seit über Jahren stets auf der Flucht. Während​. Byzantium: The Surprising Life of a Medieval Empire | Herrin, Judith | ISBN: | Kostenloser Versand für alle Bücher mit Versand und Verkauf​. Byzantium (Latein). Wortart: Substantiv, (sächlich), Wortart: Toponym. Silbentrennung: Con|stan|ti|no|po|lis, keine Mehrzahl. Wortbedeutung/Definition.

Byzantium

Byzantium (Latein). Wortart: Substantiv, (sächlich), Wortart: Toponym. Silbentrennung: Con|stan|ti|no|po|lis, keine Mehrzahl. Wortbedeutung/Definition. Byzantium ein Film von Neil Jordan mit Saoirse Ronan, Gemma Arterton. Inhaltsangabe: Clara (Gemma Arterton) und ihre Tochter Eleanor (Saoirse Ronan) sind. Clara und Eleanor Webb sind Vampire. Seit rund Jahren lebt Clara ihr düsteres Geheimnis der Untoten, die das Blut der Lebenden braucht. Immer in Gefahr entdeckt zu werden, ziehen die beiden durchs Land. In einem heruntergekommenen Küstenort.

Byzantium Wo kann man diesen Film schauen?

Byzanz zu hohen Kino Oldenburg In Holstein. Zur Sicherung dieses Byzantium wichtigen Punktes, der gleichzeitig Schlüsselstelle der Landverbindung von Europa nach Asien sowie des Seewegs von der Ägäis ins Schwarze Meer ist, gründeten megarische Siedler um v. Clara überreicht ihrer Tochter das Geld, das sie von ihren Freiern aus dem Hotel erhalten hat, und sagt Rituals Männer, dass sie nun getrennte Wege gehen werden. Juni in den Kinos veröffentlicht. Castinus I? Im Jahr wird Eleanor geboren. Byzantium Trailer 2 OV. Von Neil Jordan. Byzantium Übersetzung im Kontext von „byzantium“ in Englisch-Deutsch von Reverso Context: He represented Byzantium in diplomatic missions to Harun al-Rashid and. Hannover (Nachdruck Darmstadt ): „Byzantium“ (mak-books.eu): [1] Karl Ernst Georges: Kleines Handwörterbuch, Deutsch – Lateinisch. Nachdruck der.

Proud of that Christian and Roman heritage, convinced that their earthly empire so nearly resembled the heavenly pattern that it could never change, they called themselves Romaioi, or Romans.

Modern historians agree with them only in part. The term East Rome accurately described the political unit embracing the Eastern provinces of the old Roman Empire until , while there were yet two emperors.

The same term may even be used until the last half of the 6th century, as long as men continued to act and think according to patterns not unlike those prevailing in an earlier Roman Empire.

During those same centuries, nonetheless, there were changes so profound in their cumulative effect that after the 7th century state and society in the East differed markedly from their earlier forms.

In an effort to recognize that distinction, historians traditionally have described the medieval empire as Byzantine.

The latter term is derived from the name Byzantium, borne by a colony of ancient Greek foundation on the European side of the Bosporus , midway between the Mediterranean and the Black Sea.

The city was, by virtue of its location, a natural transit point between Europe and Asia Minor Anatolia. The circumstances of the last defense are suggestive too, for in the ancient, medieval, and modern worlds seemed briefly to meet.

The last Constantine fell in defense of the new Rome built by the first Constantine. Walls that had held firm in the early Middle Ages against German , Hun , Avar , Slav , and Arab were breached finally by modern artillery , in the mysteries of which European technicians had instructed the most successful of the Central Asian invaders: the Ottoman Turks.

The fortunes of the empire were thus intimately entwined with those of peoples whose achievements and failures constitute the medieval history of both Europe and Asia.

Thanks to the settlements that resulted from such policies, many a name, seemingly Greek, disguises another of different origin: Slavic, perhaps, or Turkish.

Byzantium was a melting-pot society, characterized during its earlier centuries by a degree of social mobility that belies the stereotype , often applied to it, of an immobile caste-ridden society.

The conquests of that age presented new problems of organization and assimilation, and those the emperors had to confront at precisely the time when older questions of economic and social policy pressed for answers in a new and acute form.

Satisfactory solutions were never found. The empire finally collapsed when its administrative structures could no longer support the burden of leadership thrust upon it by military conquests.

The Roman Empire, the ancestor of the Byzantine, remarkably blended unity and diversity , the former being by far the better known, since its constituents were the predominant features of Roman civilization.

To strengthen those sinews of imperial civilization, the emperors hoped that a lively and spontaneous trade might develop between the several provinces.

At the pinnacle of that world stood the emperor himself, the man of wisdom who would shelter the state from whatever mishaps fortune had darkly hidden.

The emperor alone could provide that protection, since, as the embodiment of all the virtues, he possessed in perfection those qualities displayed only imperfectly by his individual subjects.

The Roman formula of combating fortune with reason and therewith ensuring unity throughout the Mediterranean world worked surprisingly well in view of the pressures for disunity that time was to multiply.

Barmaid Glenn Doherty Steve Edyta Budnik Frank Daniel Mays Noel Uri Gavriel Savella Sam Riley Edit Storyline Two mysterious women seek refuge in a run-down coastal resort.

Edit Did You Know? Goofs When Clara is looking for Eleanor she is running on the upper level of the promenade. She calls to Eleanor as if she has spotted her on the lower level.

The pavement would prevent Clara from seeing her until Eleanor has come out from the lower level. Quotes [ first lines ] Eleanor : My story can never be told.

I write it over and over, wherever we find shelter. I write of what I cannot speak: the truth. I write all I know of it, then I throw the pages to the wind.

Maybe the birds can read it. Was this review helpful to you? Yes No Report this. Frequently Asked Questions Q: How does the movie end? Q: How and why does Clara choose to become a vampire?

Q: Who is Eleanor's father? Country: UK Ireland. Language: English. Budget: GBP8,, estimated. Runtime: min. Sound Mix: Dolby Digital Datasat. Color: Color.

Edit page. November Streaming Picks. Holiday Picks. What to Stream on Prime Video. Clear your history. Completed in , the Hagia Sophia stands today as one of the major monuments of Byzantine architectural history.

After Justinian died in , his successor, Justin II , refused to pay the large tribute to the Persians. Meanwhile, the Germanic Lombards invaded Italy; by the end of the century, only a third of Italy was in Byzantine hands.

Justin's successor, Tiberius II , choosing between his enemies, awarded subsidies to the Avars while taking military action against the Persians.

Although Tiberius' general, Maurice , led an effective campaign on the eastern frontier, subsidies failed to restrain the Avars. They captured the Balkan fortress of Sirmium in , while the Slavs began to make inroads across the Danube.

Maurice, who meanwhile succeeded Tiberius, intervened in a Persian civil war, placed the legitimate Khosrau II back on the throne, and married his daughter to him.

Maurice's treaty with his new brother-in-law enlarged the territories of the Empire to the East and allowed the energetic Emperor to focus on the Balkans.

By , a series of successful Byzantine campaigns had pushed the Avars and Slavs back across the Danube. A revolt broke out under an officer named Phocas, who marched the troops back to Constantinople; Maurice and his family were murdered while trying to escape.

After Maurice's murder by Phocas , Khosrau used the pretext to reconquer the Roman province of Mesopotamia. He was eventually deposed in by Heraclius , who sailed to Constantinople from Carthage with an icon affixed to the prow of his ship.

Following the accession of Heraclius, the Sassanid advance pushed deep into the Levant, occupying Damascus and Jerusalem and removing the True Cross to Ctesiphon.

After this, the Sassanid army was forced to withdraw to Anatolia. The loss came just after news had reached them of yet another Byzantine victory, where Heraclius's brother Theodore scored well against the Persian general Shahin.

The main Sassanid force was destroyed at Nineveh in , and in Heraclius restored the True Cross to Jerusalem in a majestic ceremony, [67] as he marched into the Sassanid capital of Ctesiphon , where anarchy and civil war reigned as a result of the enduring war.

Eventually, the Persians were obliged to withdraw all armed forces and return Sassanid-ruled Egypt , the Levant and whatever imperial territories of Mesopotamia and Armenia were in Roman hands at the time of an earlier peace treaty in c.

The war had exhausted both the Byzantines and Sassanids, however, and left them extremely vulnerable to the Muslim forces that emerged in the following years.

The Arabs, now firmly in control of Syria and the Levant , sent frequent raiding parties deep into Asia Minor, and in — laid siege to Constantinople itself.

The Arab fleet was finally repulsed through the use of Greek fire , and a thirty-years' truce was signed between the Empire and the Umayyad Caliphate.

The city also lost the free grain shipments in , after Egypt fell first to the Persians and then to the Arabs, and public wheat distribution ceased.

The void left by the disappearance of the old semi-autonomous civic institutions was filled by the system called theme , which entailed dividing Asia Minor into "provinces" occupied by distinct armies that assumed civil authority and answered directly to the imperial administration.

This system may have had its roots in certain ad hoc measures taken by Heraclius, but over the course of the 7th century it developed into an entirely new system of imperial governance.

The withdrawal of large numbers of troops from the Balkans to combat the Persians and then the Arabs in the east opened the door for the gradual southward expansion of Slavic peoples into the peninsula, and, as in Asia Minor, many cities shrank to small fortified settlements.

In , Byzantine forces sent to disperse these new settlements were defeated. In , Constantine IV signed a treaty with the Bulgar khan Asparukh , and the new Bulgarian state assumed sovereignty over a number of Slavic tribes that had previously, at least in name, recognised Byzantine rule.

Justinian II attempted to break the power of the urban aristocracy through severe taxation and the appointment of "outsiders" to administrative posts.

He was driven from power in , and took shelter first with the Khazars and then with the Bulgarians. In , he returned to Constantinople with the armies of the Bulgarian khan Tervel , retook the throne, and instituted a reign of terror against his enemies.

With his final overthrow in , supported once more by the urban aristocracy, the Heraclian dynasty came to an end. In the Umayyad Caliphate launched the Siege of Constantinople — which lasted for one year.

After Leo III turned back the Muslim assault in , he addressed himself to the task of reorganising and consolidating the themes in Asia Minor.

In a major Byzantine victory took place at the Battle of Akroinon where the Byzantines destroyed the Umayyad army once again.

Leo III the Isaurian's son and successor, Constantine V , won noteworthy victories in northern Syria and also thoroughly undermined Bulgarian strength.

Coupled with military defeats on other fronts of the Caliphate and internal instability, Umayyad expansion came to an end.

The 8th and early 9th centuries were also dominated by controversy and religious division over Iconoclasm , which was the main political issue in the Empire for over a century.

Icons here meaning all forms of religious imagery were banned by Leo and Constantine from around , leading to revolts by iconodules supporters of icons throughout the empire.

After the efforts of empress Irene , the Second Council of Nicaea met in and affirmed that icons could be venerated but not worshipped. Irene is said to have endeavoured to negotiate a marriage between herself and Charlemagne, but, according to Theophanes the Confessor , the scheme was frustrated by Aetios, one of her favourites.

In the early 9th century, Leo V reintroduced the policy of iconoclasm, but in Empress Theodora restored the veneration of icons with the help of Patriarch Methodios.

The accession of Basil I to the throne in marks the beginning of the Macedonian dynasty , which would rule for the next two and a half centuries.

This dynasty included some of the most able emperors in Byzantium's history, and the period is one of revival and resurgence.

The Empire moved from defending against external enemies to reconquest of territories formerly lost. In addition to a reassertion of Byzantine military power and political authority, the period under the Macedonian dynasty is characterised by a cultural revival in spheres such as philosophy and the arts.

There was a conscious effort to restore the brilliance of the period before the Slavic and subsequent Arab invasions , and the Macedonian era has been dubbed the "Golden Age" of Byzantium.

Taking advantage of the Empire's weakness after the Revolt of Thomas the Slav in the early s, the Arabs re-emerged and captured Crete.

They also successfully attacked Sicily, but in general Petronas gained a decisive victory against Umar al-Aqta , the emir of Melitene Malatya. Under the leadership of emperor Krum , the Bulgarian threat also re-emerged, but in — Krum's son, Omurtag , signed a peace treaty with Leo V.

In the s Abbasid Caliphate started military excursions culminating with a victory in the Sack of Amorium. The Byzantines then counter-attacked and sacked Damietta in Egypt.

Later the Abbasid Caliphate responded by sending their troops into Anatolia again, sacking and marauding until they were eventually annihilated by the Byzantines in In the early years of Basil I's reign, Arab raids on the coasts of Dalmatia were successfully repelled , and the region once again came under secure Byzantine control.

This enabled Byzantine missionaries to penetrate to the interior and convert the Serbs and the principalities of modern-day Herzegovina and Montenegro to Christianity.

By contrast, the Byzantine position in Southern Italy was gradually consolidated so that by Bari was once again under Byzantine rule, [85] and most of Southern Italy would remain in the Empire for the next years.

The Paulicians were defeated and their capital of Tephrike Divrigi taken, while the offensive against the Abbasid Caliphate began with the recapture of Samosata.

However, Sicily was lost to the Arabs in , and in Thessaloniki , the Empire's second city, was sacked by an Arab fleet. The naval weakness of the Empire was rectified.

Despite this revenge the Byzantines were still unable to strike a decisive blow against the Muslims, who inflicted a crushing defeat on the imperial forces when they attempted to regain Crete in The death of the Bulgarian tsar Simeon I in severely weakened the Bulgarians, allowing the Byzantines to concentrate on the eastern front.

Kourkouas was especially celebrated for returning to Constantinople the venerated Mandylion , a relic purportedly imprinted with a portrait of Christ.

The soldier-emperors Nikephoros II Phokas r. The great city of Aleppo was taken by Nikephoros in and the Arabs were decisively expelled from Crete in The recapture of Crete put an end to Arab raids in the Aegean allowing mainland Greece to flourish once again.

Cyprus was permanently retaken in and the successes of Nikephoros culminated in with the recapture of Antioch , which he incorporated as a province of the Empire.

Nevertheless, by that time the Empire stretched from the straits of Messina to the Euphrates and from the Danube to Syria. The traditional struggle with the See of Rome continued through the Macedonian period, spurred by the question of religious supremacy over the newly Christianised state of Bulgaria.

Leo the Wise died in , and hostilities soon resumed as Simeon marched to Constantinople at the head of a large army. When a revolt in Constantinople halted his dynastic project, he again invaded Thrace and conquered Adrianople.

A great imperial expedition under Leo Phocas and Romanos I Lekapenos ended with another crushing Byzantine defeat at the Battle of Achelous in , and the following year the Bulgarians were free to ravage northern Greece.

Adrianople was plundered again in , and a Bulgarian army laid siege to Constantinople in Simeon died suddenly in , however, and Bulgarian power collapsed with him.

Bulgaria and Byzantium entered a long period of peaceful relations, and the Empire was now free to concentrate on the eastern front against the Muslims.

Bulgarian resistance revived under the rule of the Cometopuli dynasty , but the new Emperor Basil II r. For the next few years, the emperor would be preoccupied with internal revolts in Anatolia, while the Bulgarians expanded their realm in the Balkans.

The war dragged on for nearly twenty years. The Byzantine victories of Spercheios and Skopje decisively weakened the Bulgarian army, and in annual campaigns, Basil methodically reduced the Bulgarian strongholds.

When Tsar Samuil saw the broken remains of his once formidable army, he died of shock. By , the last Bulgarian strongholds had surrendered, and the country became part of the Empire.

Between and , the Empire developed a mixed relationship with the new state of the Kievan Rus' , which had emerged to the north across the Black Sea.

The Rus' launched their first attack against Constantinople in , pillaging the suburbs of the city. In , they appeared on the Asian shore of the Bosphorus, but this time they were crushed, an indication of the improvements in the Byzantine military position after , when only diplomacy had been able to push back the invaders.

Basil II could not ignore the emerging power of the Rus', and, following the example of his predecessors, he used religion as a means for the achievement of political purposes.

Even after the Christianisation of the Rus', however, relations were not always friendly. The most serious conflict between the two powers was the war of — in Bulgaria, but several Rus' raiding expeditions against the Byzantine cities of the Black Sea coast and Constantinople itself are also recorded.

Although most were repulsed, they were often followed by treaties that were generally favourable to the Rus', such as the one concluded at the end of the war of , during which the Rus' gave an indication of their ambitions to compete with the Byzantines as an independent power.

Between and , following years of tensions, Basil II led a series of victorious campaigns against the Kingdom of Georgia , resulting in the annexation of several Georgian provinces to the Empire.

Basil's successors also annexed Bagratid Armenia in Importantly, both Georgia and Armenia were significantly weakened by the Byzantine administration's policy of heavy taxation and abolishing of the levy.

The weakening of Georgia and Armenia would play a significant role in the Byzantine defeat at Manzikert in Basil II is considered among the most capable Byzantine emperors and his reign as the apex of the empire in the Middle Ages.

These were not temporary tactical gains but long-term reconquests. Leo VI achieved the complete codification of Byzantine law in Greek.

This monumental work of 60 volumes became the foundation of all subsequent Byzantine law and is still studied today. Leo's reform did much to reduce the previous fragmentation of the Empire, which henceforth had one center of power, Constantinople.

Under the Macedonian emperors, the city of Constantinople flourished, becoming the largest and wealthiest city in Europe, with a population of approximately , in the 9th and 10th centuries.

The Macedonian emperors also increased the Empire's wealth by fostering trade with Western Europe, particularly through the sale of silk and metalwork.

The Macedonian period also included events of momentous religious significance. The conversion of the Bulgarians, Serbs and Rus' to Orthodox Christianity drew the religious map of Europe which still resonates today.

Cyril and Methodius , two Byzantine Greek brothers from Thessaloniki, contributed significantly to the Christianization of the Slavs and in the process devised the Glagolitic alphabet , ancestor to the Cyrillic script.

In , relations between the Eastern and Western traditions of the Chalcedonian Christian Church reached a terminal crisis, known as the East—West Schism.

Although there was a formal declaration of institutional separation, on 16 July, when three papal legates entered the Hagia Sophia during Divine Liturgy on a Saturday afternoon and placed a bull of excommunication on the altar, [] the so-called Great Schism was actually the culmination of centuries of gradual separation.

The Byzantine Empire soon fell into a period of difficulties, caused to a large extent by the undermining of the theme system and the neglect of the military.

Mercenaries were expensive, however, and as the threat of invasion receded in the 10th century, so did the need for maintaining large garrisons and expensive fortifications.

None of his immediate successors had any particular military or political talent and the imperial administration increasingly fell into the hands of the civil service.

Incompetent efforts to revive the Byzantine economy resulted in severe inflation and a debased gold currency. The army was now seen as both an unnecessary expense and a political threat.

A number of standing local units were demobilised, further augmenting the army's dependence on mercenaries, who could be retained and dismissed on an as-needed basis.

At the same time, Byzantium was faced with new enemies. Its provinces in southern Italy were threatened by the Normans , who arrived in Italy at the beginning of the 11th century.

During a period of strife between Constantinople and Rome culminating in the East-West Schism of , the Normans began to advance, slowly but steadily, into Byzantine Italy.

Bari, the main Byzantine stronghold in Apulia, was besieged in August and fell in April About , Constantine IX disbanded what the historian John Skylitzes calls the "Iberian Army", which consisted of 50, men and it was turned into a contemporary Drungary of the Watch.

Two other knowledgeable contemporaries, the former officials Michael Attaleiates and Kekaumenos , agree with Skylitzes that by demobilising these soldiers Constantine did catastrophic harm to the Empire's eastern defences.

The emergency lent weight to the military aristocracy in Anatolia, who in secured the election of one of their own, Romanos Diogenes , as emperor.

In the summer of , Romanos undertook a massive eastern campaign to draw the Seljuks into a general engagement with the Byzantine army.

Alp Arslan treated him with respect and imposed no harsh terms on the Byzantines. By , the Seljuks had expanded their rule over virtually the entire Anatolian plateau from Armenia in the east to Bithynia in the west, and they had founded their capital at Nicaea , just 90 kilometres 56 miles from Constantinople.

During the Komnenian, or Comnenian, period from about to about , the five emperors of the Komnenos dynasty Alexios I, John II, Manuel I, Alexios II, and Andronikos I presided over a sustained, though ultimately incomplete, restoration of the military, territorial, economic, and political position of the Byzantine Empire.

The Empire under the Komnenoi played a key role in the history of the Crusades in the Holy Land, which Alexios I had helped bring about, while also exerting enormous cultural and political influence in Europe, the Near East, and the lands around the Mediterranean Sea under John and Manuel.

Contact between Byzantium and the "Latin" West, including the Crusader states, increased significantly during the Komnenian period. Venetian and other Italian traders became resident in large numbers in Constantinople and the empire there were an estimated 60, Latins in Constantinople alone, out of a population of three to four hundred thousand , and their presence together with the numerous Latin mercenaries who were employed by Manuel helped to spread Byzantine technology, art, literature and culture throughout the Latin West, while also leading to a flow of Western ideas and customs into the Empire.

In terms of prosperity and cultural life, the Komnenian period was one of the peaks in Byzantine history, [] and Constantinople remained the leading city of the Christian world in size, wealth, and culture.

After Manzikert, a partial recovery referred to as the Komnenian restoration was made possible by the Komnenian dynasty. From the outset of his reign, Alexios faced a formidable attack by the Normans under Robert Guiscard and his son Bohemund of Taranto , who captured Dyrrhachium and Corfu , and laid siege to Larissa in Thessaly.

Robert Guiscard's death in temporarily eased the Norman problem. The following year, the Seljuq sultan died, and the sultanate was split by internal rivalries.

By his own efforts, Alexios defeated the Pechenegs ; they were caught by surprise and annihilated at the Battle of Levounion on 28 April Having achieved stability in the West, Alexios could turn his attention to the severe economic difficulties and the disintegration of the Empire's traditional defences.

At the Council of Piacenza in , envoys from Alexios spoke to Pope Urban II about the suffering of the Christians of the East, and underscored that without help from the West they would continue to suffer under Muslim rule.

The response in Western Europe was overwhelming. Alexios had anticipated help in the form of mercenary forces from the West, but he was totally unprepared for the immense and undisciplined force that soon arrived in Byzantine territory.

It was no comfort to Alexios to learn that four of the eight leaders of the main body of the Crusade were Normans, among them Bohemund.

Since the crusade had to pass through Constantinople, however, the Emperor had some control over it. He required its leaders to swear to restore to the empire any towns or territories they might reconquer from the Turks on their way to the Holy Land.

In return, he gave them guides and a military escort. Alexios was able to recover a number of important cities and islands, and in fact much of western Asia Minor.

The Crusaders agreed to become Alexios' vassals under the Treaty of Devol in , which marked the end of the Norman threat during Alexios' reign.

Alexios's son John II Komnenos succeeded him in and ruled until John was a pious and dedicated Emperor who was determined to undo the damage to the empire suffered at the Battle of Manzikert, half a century earlier.

During his twenty-five-year reign, John made alliances with the Holy Roman Empire in the West and decisively defeated the Pechenegs at the Battle of Beroia.

In the later part of his reign, John focused his activities on the East, personally leading numerous campaigns against the Turks in Asia Minor.

His campaigns fundamentally altered the balance of power in the East, forcing the Turks onto the defensive, while restoring many towns, fortresses, and cities across the peninsula to the Byzantines.

He defeated the Danishmend Emirate of Melitene and reconquered all of Cilicia , while forcing Raymond of Poitiers , Prince of Antioch, to recognise Byzantine suzerainty.

In an effort to demonstrate the Emperor's role as the leader of the Christian world, John marched into the Holy Land at the head of the combined forces of the Empire and the Crusader states ; yet despite his great vigour pressing the campaign, his hopes were disappointed by the treachery of his Crusader allies.

John's chosen heir was his fourth son, Manuel I Komnenos , who campaigned aggressively against his neighbours both in the west and in the east.

In Palestine, Manuel allied with the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem and sent a large fleet to participate in a combined invasion of Fatimid Egypt.

Manuel reinforced his position as overlord of the Crusader states, with his hegemony over Antioch and Jerusalem secured by agreement with Raynald , Prince of Antioch, and Amalric , King of Jerusalem.

Despite this military setback, Manuel's armies successfully invaded the Southern parts of the Kingdom of Hungary in , defeating the Hungarians at the Battle of Sirmium.

By , nearly the whole of the eastern Adriatic coast lay in Manuel's hands. In the east, however, Manuel suffered a major defeat in at the Battle of Myriokephalon , against the Turks.

Yet the losses were quickly recovered, and in the following year Manuel's forces inflicted a defeat upon a force of "picked Turks". John and Manuel pursued active military policies, and both deployed considerable resources on sieges and on city defences; aggressive fortification policies were at the heart of their imperial military policies.

From c. This allowed the Western provinces to achieve an economic revival that continued until the close of the century. It has been argued that Byzantium under the Komnenian rule was more prosperous than at any time since the Persian invasions of the 7th century.

During the 12th century, population levels rose and extensive tracts of new agricultural land were brought into production. Archaeological evidence from both Europe and Asia Minor shows a considerable increase in the size of urban settlements, together with a notable upsurge in new towns.

Trade was also flourishing; the Venetians, the Genoese and others opened up the ports of the Aegean to commerce, shipping goods from the Crusader kingdoms of Outremer and Fatimid Egypt to the west and trading with the Empire via Constantinople.

In artistic terms, there was a revival in mosaic , and regional schools of architecture began producing many distinctive styles that drew on a range of cultural influences.

In Eustathius of Thessalonica , Byzantine humanism found its most characteristic expression. Alexios was highly incompetent in the office, and with his mother Maria of Antioch 's Frankish background, made his regency unpopular.

Andronikos began his reign well; in particular, the measures he took to reform the government of the Empire have been praised by historians.

According to George Ostrogorsky , Andronikos was determined to root out corruption: Under his rule, the sale of offices ceased; selection was based on merit, rather than favouritism; officials were paid an adequate salary so as to reduce the temptation of bribery.

In the provinces, Andronikos's reforms produced a speedy and marked improvement. The struggle against the aristocracy turned into wholesale slaughter, while the Emperor resorted to ever more ruthless measures to shore up his regime.

Yet, none of these troubles would compare to William II of Sicily 's r. He was finally overthrown when Isaac Angelos , surviving an imperial assassination attempt, seized power with the aid of the people and had Andronikos killed.

The reign of Isaac II, and more so that of his brother Alexios III , saw the collapse of what remained of the centralised machinery of Byzantine government and defence.

Although the Normans were driven out of Greece, in the Vlachs and Bulgars began a rebellion that led to the formation of the Second Bulgarian Empire.

The internal policy of the Angeloi was characterised by the squandering of the public treasure and fiscal maladministration.

Imperial authority was severely weakened, and the growing power vacuum at the center of the Empire encouraged fragmentation. There is evidence that some Komnenian heirs had set up a semi-independent state in Trebizond before In , Pope Innocent III broached the subject of a new crusade through legates and encyclical letters.

The crusader army that arrived at Venice in the summer of and hired the Venetian fleet to transport them to Egypt. As payment to the Venetians, they captured the Christian port of Zara in Dalmatia vassal city of Venice, which had rebelled and placed itself under Hungary's protection in Alexios offered to reunite the Byzantine church with Rome, pay the crusaders , silver marks, join the crusade and provide all the supplies they needed to get to Egypt.

The crusaders arrived at Constantinople in the summer of and quickly attacked, starting a major fire that damaged large parts of the city, and briefly seized control.

The crusaders again took the city on 13 April and Constantinople was subjected to pillage and massacre by the rank and file for three days.

Many priceless icons, relics and other objects later turned up in Western Europe , a large number in Venice. According to Choniates, a prostitute was even set up on the Patriarchal throne.

The lands divided up among the leaders included most of the former Byzantine possessions, though resistance would continue through the Byzantine remnants of Nicaea , Trebizond , and Epirus.

After the sack of Constantinople in by Latin crusaders, two Byzantine successor states were established: the Empire of Nicaea , and the Despotate of Epirus.

A third, the Empire of Trebizond , was created after Alexios Komnenos , commanding the Georgian expedition in Chaldia [] a few weeks before the sack of Constantinople, found himself de facto emperor, and established himself in Trebizond.

Of the three successor states, Epirus and Nicaea stood the best chance of reclaiming Constantinople. The Nicaean Empire struggled to survive the next few decades, however, and by the midth century it had lost much of southern Anatolia.

However, the Mongol invasion also gave Nicaea a temporary respite from Seljuk attacks, allowing it to concentrate on the Latin Empire to its north.

The Empire of Nicaea, founded by the Laskarid dynasty , managed to effect the Recapture of Constantinople from the Latins in and defeat Epirus.

This led to a short-lived revival of Byzantine fortunes under Michael VIII Palaiologos but the war-ravaged Empire was ill-equipped to deal with the enemies that surrounded it.

To maintain his campaigns against the Latins, Michael pulled troops from Asia Minor and levied crippling taxes on the peasantry, causing much resentment.

Rather than holding on to his possessions in Asia Minor, Michael chose to expand the Empire, gaining only short-term success. To avoid another sacking of the capital by the Latins, he forced the Church to submit to Rome, again a temporary solution for which the peasantry hated Michael and Constantinople.

However, the use of mercenaries by Andronikos II would often backfire, with the Catalan Company ravaging the countryside and increasing resentment towards Constantinople.

In , an earthquake at Gallipoli devastated the fort, allowing the Ottomans who were hired as mercenaries during the civil war by John VI Kantakouzenos to establish themselves in Europe.

Following the Battle of Kosovo , much of the Balkans became dominated by the Ottomans. The Byzantine emperors appealed to the West for help, but the Pope would only consider sending aid in return for a reunion of the Eastern Orthodox Church with the See of Rome.

Church unity was considered, and occasionally accomplished by imperial decree, but the Orthodox citizenry and clergy intensely resented the authority of Rome and the Latin Rite.

Constantinople by this stage was underpopulated and dilapidated. The population of the city had collapsed so severely that it was now little more than a cluster of villages separated by fields.

On 2 April , Sultan Mehmed 's army of 80, men and large numbers of irregulars laid siege to the city. The last Byzantine emperor, Constantine XI Palaiologos , was last seen casting off his imperial regalia and throwing himself into hand-to-hand combat after the walls of the city were taken.

By the time of the fall of Constantinople, the only remaining territory of the Byzantine Empire was the Despotate of the Morea Peloponnese , which was ruled by brothers of the last Emperor, Thomas Palaiologos and Demetrios Palaiologos.

The Despotate continued on as an independent state by paying an annual tribute to the Ottomans. Incompetent rule, failure to pay the annual tribute and a revolt against the Ottomans finally led to Mehmed II's invasion of Morea in May A few holdouts remained for a time.

The island of Monemvasia refused to surrender and it was first ruled for a short time by an Aragonese corsair.

When the population drove him out they obtained the consent of Thomas to place themselves under the Pope's protection before the end of The Mani Peninsula , on the Morea's south end, resisted under a loose coalition of the local clans and then that area came under Venice's rule.

The very last holdout was Salmeniko , in the Morea's northwest. Graitzas Palaiologos was the military commander there, stationed at Salmeniko Castle.

While the town eventually surrendered, Graitzas and his garrison and some town residents held out in the castle until July , when they escaped and reached Venetian territory.

The Empire of Trebizond , which had split away from the Byzantine Empire just weeks before Constantinople was taken by the Crusaders in , became the last remnant and last de facto successor state to the Byzantine Empire.

Efforts by the Emperor David to recruit European powers for an anti-Ottoman crusade provoked war between the Ottomans and Trebizond in the summer of After a month-long siege, David surrendered the city of Trebizond on 14 August The Empire of Trebizond's Crimean principality, the Principality of Theodoro part of the Perateia , lasted another 14 years, falling to the Ottomans in December He lived in the Morea until its fall in , then escaped to Rome where he lived under the protection of the Papal States for the remainder of his life.

Since the office of emperor had never been technically hereditary, Andreas' claim would have been without merit under Byzantine law. However, the Empire had vanished, and Western states generally followed the Roman-church-sanctioned principles of hereditary sovereignty.

Constantine XI died without producing an heir, and had Constantinople not fallen he might have been succeeded by the sons of his deceased elder brother, who were taken into the palace service of Mehmed II after the fall of Constantinople.

Mehmed II and his successors continued to consider themselves heirs to the Roman Empire until the demise of the Ottoman Empire in the early 20th century following World War 1.

Meanwhile, the Danubian Principalities whose rulers also considered themselves the heirs of the Eastern Roman Emperors [] harboured Orthodox refugees, including some Byzantine nobles.

He had married Andreas' sister, Sophia Palaiologina , whose grandson, Ivan IV , would become the first Tsar of Russia tsar , or czar , meaning caesar , is a term traditionally applied by Slavs to the Byzantine Emperors.

Their successors supported the idea that Moscow was the proper heir to Rome and Constantinople. The idea of the Russian Empire as the successive Third Rome was kept alive until its demise with the Russian Revolution.

In the Byzantine state, the emperor was the sole and absolute ruler , and his power was regarded as having divine origin.

By the end of the 8th century, a civil administration focused on the court was formed as part of a large-scale consolidation of power in the capital the rise to pre-eminence of the position of sakellarios is related to this change.

Despite the occasionally derogatory use of the terms "Byzantine" and " Byzantinism ", the Byzantine bureaucracy had a distinct ability for reconstituting itself in accordance with the Empire's situation.

The elaborate system of titulature and precedence gave the court prestige and influence. Officials were arranged in strict order around the emperor, and depended upon the imperial will for their ranks.

There were also actual administrative jobs, but authority could be vested in individuals rather than offices. In the 8th and 9th centuries, civil service constituted the clearest path to aristocratic status, but, starting in the 9th century, the civil aristocracy was rivalled by an aristocracy of nobility.

According to some studies of Byzantine government, 11th-century politics were dominated by competition between the civil and the military aristocracy.

During this period, Alexios I undertook important administrative reforms, including the creation of new courtly dignities and offices.

After the fall of Rome, the key challenge to the Empire was to maintain a set of relations between itself and its neighbours.

When these nations set about forging formal political institutions, they often modelled themselves on Constantinople.

Byzantine diplomacy soon managed to draw its neighbours into a network of international and inter-state relations. For example, a Bulgarian threat could be countered by providing money to the Kievan Rus'.

Diplomacy in the era was understood to have an intelligence-gathering function on top of its pure political function.

The Bureau of Barbarians in Constantinople handled matters of protocol and record keeping for any issues related to the " barbarians ", and thus had, perhaps, a basic intelligence function itself.

Bury believed that the office exercised supervision over all foreigners visiting Constantinople, and that they were under the supervision of the Logothetes tou dromou.

Byzantines availed themselves of a number of diplomatic practices. For example, embassies to the capital would often stay on for years.

A member of other royal houses would routinely be requested to stay on in Constantinople, not only as a potential hostage, but also as a useful pawn in case political conditions where he came from changed.

Another key practice was to overwhelm visitors by sumptuous displays. The writings of Classical antiquity were cultivated and extended in Byzantium.

Therefore, Byzantine science was in every period closely connected with ancient philosophy , and metaphysics. Pendentive architecture, a specific spherical form in the upper corners to support a dome, is a Byzantine invention.

Although the first experimentation was made in the s, it was in the 6th century in the Byzantine Empire that its potential was fully achieved. A mechanical sundial device consisting of complex gears made by the Byzantines has been excavated which indicates that the Antikythera mechanism , a sort of analogue device used in astronomy and invented around the late second century BC, continued to be re active in the Byzantine period.

Partington writes that. Constantinople was full of inventors and craftsmen. The "philosopher" Leo of Thessalonika made for the Emperor Theophilos —42 a golden tree, the branches of which carried artificial birds which flapped their wings and sang, a model lion which moved and roared, and a bejewelled clockwork lady who walked.

These mechanical toys continued the tradition represented in the treatise of Heron of Alexandria c. Such mechanical devices reached a high level of sophistication and were made in order to impress visitors.

Leo the Mathematician has also been credited with the system of beacons , a sort of optical telegraph, stretching across Anatolia from Cilicia to Constantinople, which gave advance warning of enemy raids, and which was used as diplomatic communication as well.

The Byzantines knew and used the concept of hydraulics: in the s the diplomat Liutprand of Cremona , when visiting the Byzantine emperor, explained that he saw the emperor sitting on a hydraulic throne and that it was "made in such a cunning manner that at one moment it was down on the ground, while at another it rose higher and was seen to be up in the air".

John Philoponus , an Alexandrian philologist, Aristotelian commentator and Christian theologian, author of a considerable number of philosophical treatises and theological works, was the first who questioned Aristotle's teaching of physics, despite its flaws.

Unlike Aristotle, who based his physics on verbal argument, Philoponus relied on observation. In his Commentaries on Aristotle, Philoponus wrote:.

But this is completely erroneous, and our view may be corroborated by actual observation more effectively than by any sort of verbal argument.

For if you let fall from the same height two weights of which one is many times as heavy as the other, you will see that the ratio of the times required for the motion does not depend on the ratio of the weights, but that the difference in time is a very small one.

And so, if the difference in the weights is not considerable, that is, of one is, let us say, double the other, there will be no difference, or else an imperceptible difference, in time, though the difference in weight is by no means negligible, with one body weighing twice as much as the other.

John Philoponus' criticism of Aristotelian principles of physics was an inspiration for Galileo Galilei's refutation of Aristotelian physics during the Scientific Revolution many centuries later, as Galileo cited Philoponus substantially in his works.

The ship mill is a Byzantine invention, designed to mill grains using hydraulic power. The technology eventually spread to the rest of Europe and was in use until c.

It not only summarised the laws, but also gave direction on interpretation. Under the reign of Justinian I it was Tribonian , a notable jurist, who supervised the revision of the legal code known today as Corpus Juris Civilis.

In the field of law, Justinian I 's reforms had a clear effect on the evolution of jurisprudence , with his Corpus Juris Civilis becoming the basis for revived Roman law in the Western world, while Leo III's Ecloga influenced the formation of legal institutions in the Slavic world.

In the 10th century, Leo VI the Wise achieved the complete codification of the whole of Byzantine law in Greek with the Basilika , which became the foundation of all subsequent Byzantine law with an influence extending through to modern Balkan legal codes.

The Byzantines pioneered the concept of the hospital as an institution offering medical care and possibility of a cure for the patients, as a reflection of the ideals of Christian charity, rather than merely a place to die.

Although the concept of uroscopy was known to Galen, he did not see the importance of using it to diagnose disease.

It was Byzantine physicians, such as Theophilus Protospatharius , who realised the diagnostic potential of uroscopy in a time when no microscope or stethoscope existed.

That practice eventually spread to the rest of Europe. In medicine the works of Byzantine doctors, such as the Vienna Dioscorides 6th century , and works of Paul of Aegina 7th century and Nicholas Myrepsos late 13th century , continued to be used as the authoritative texts by Europeans through the Renaissance.

The latter one invented the Aurea Alexandrina which was a kind of opiate or antidote. The first known example of separating conjoined twins happened in the Byzantine Empire in the 10th century when a pair of conjoined twins from Armenia came to Constantinople.

Many years later one of them died, so the surgeons in Constantinople decided to remove the body of the dead one. The result was partly successful, as the surviving twin lived three days before dying, a result so impressive that it was mentioned a century and half later by historians.

The next case of separating conjoined twins would not occur until in Germany. Greek fire , an incendiary weapon which could even burn on water is also attributed to the Byzantines.

It played a crucial role in the Empire's victory over the Umayyad Caliphate during the Siege of Constantinople — However, it has also been argued that no single person invented Greek fire, but rather, that it was "invented by the chemists in Constantinople who had inherited the discoveries of the Alexandrian chemical school The first example of a grenade also appeared in Byzantine Empire, consisting of ceramic jars holding glass and nails, and filled with the explosive component of Greek Fire.

It was used on battlefields. The first examples of hand-held flamethrower also occurred in the Byzantine Empire in the 10th century, where infantry units were equipped with hand pumps and swivel tubes used to project the flame.

The counterweight trebuchet was invented in the Byzantine Empire during the reign of Alexios I Komnenos — under the Komnenian restoration when the Byzantines used this new-developed siege weaponry to devastate citadels and fortifications.

This siege artillery marked the apogee of siege weaponry prior to the use of the cannon. From the Byzantines the armies of Europe and Asia eventually learned and adopted this siege weaponry.

In the final century of the Empire, astronomy and other mathematical sciences were taught in Trebizond; medicine attracted the interest of almost all scholars.

The Fall of Constantinople in fuelled the era later commonly known as the " Italian Renaissance ". During this period, refugee Byzantine scholars were principally responsible for carrying, in person and in writing, ancient Greek grammatical, literary studies, mathematical, and astronomical knowledge to early Renaissance Italy.

The Byzantine Empire was a theocracy , said to be ruled by God working through the Emperor. Jennifer Fretland VanVoorst argues, "The Byzantine Empire became a theocracy in the sense that Christian values and ideals were the foundation of the empire's political ideals and heavily entwined with its political goals.

The constitution of the Byzantine Empire was based on the conviction that it was the earthly copy of the Kingdom of Heaven. Just as God ruled in Heaven, so the Emperor, made in his image, should rule on earth and carry out his commandments It saw itself as a universal empire.

Ideally, it should embrace all the peoples of the Earth who, ideally, should all be members of the one true Christian Church, its own Orthodox Church.

Just as man was made in God's image, so man's kingdom on Earth was made in the image of the Kingdom of Heaven. The survival of the Empire in the East assured an active role of the Emperor in the affairs of the Church.

The Byzantine state inherited from pagan times the administrative, and financial routine of administering religious affairs, and this routine was applied to the Christian Church.

Following the pattern set by Eusebius of Caesarea , the Byzantines viewed the Emperor as a representative or messenger of Christ , responsible particularly for the propagation of Christianity among pagans, and for the "externals" of the religion, such as administration and finances.

As Cyril Mango points out, the Byzantine political thinking can be summarised in the motto "One God, one empire, one religion". The imperial role in the affairs of the Church never developed into a fixed, legally defined system.

As George Ostrogorsky points out:. The Patriarchate of Constantinople remained the center of the Orthodox world, with subordinate metropolitan sees and archbishoprics in the territory of Asia Minor and the Balkans, now lost to Byzantium, as well as in Caucasus , Russia and Lithuania.

The Church remained the most stable element in the Byzantine Empire. Byzantine monasticism especially came to be an "ever-present feature" of the empire, with monasteries becoming "powerful landowners and a voice to be listened to in imperial politics".

The official state Christian doctrine was determined by the first seven ecumenical councils , and it was then the emperor's duty to impose it on his subjects.

An imperial decree of , which was later incorporated into the Codex Justinianeus , orders the population of the Empire "to assume the name of Catholic Christians", and regards all those who will not abide by the law as "mad and foolish persons"; as followers of "heretical dogmas".

Despite imperial decrees and the stringent stance of the state church itself, which came to be known as the Eastern Orthodox Church or Eastern Christianity , the latter never represented all Christians in Byzantium.

Mango believes that, in the early stages of the Empire, the "mad and foolish persons", those labelled " heretics " by the state church, were the majority of the population.

This led to a significant religious crisis , which ended in the mid-9th century with the restoration of icons.

During the same period, a new wave of pagans emerged in the Balkans, originating mainly from Slavic people. These were gradually Christianised , and by Byzantium's late stages, Eastern Orthodoxy represented most Christians and, in general, most people in what remained of the Empire.

Jews were a significant minority in the Byzantine state throughout its history, and, according to Roman law, they constituted a legally recognised religious group.

In the early Byzantine period they were generally tolerated, but then periods of tensions and persecutions ensued.

In any case, after the Arab conquests, the majority of Jews found themselves outside the Empire; those left inside the Byzantine borders apparently lived in relative peace from the 10th century onwards.

Surviving Byzantine art is mostly religious and with exceptions at certain periods is highly conventionalised, following traditional models that translate carefully controlled church theology into artistic terms.

Painting in fresco , illuminated manuscripts and on wood panel and, especially in earlier periods, mosaic were the main media, and figurative sculpture very rare except for small carved ivories.

Manuscript painting preserved to the end some of the classical realist tradition that was missing in larger works. This was especially so in Italy, where Byzantine styles persisted in modified form through the 12th century, and became formative influences on Italian Renaissance art.

But few incoming influences affected Byzantine style.

Byzantium The empire to 867 Video

Byzantium - Official Trailer (2013) Saoirse Ronan, Gemma Arterton [HD] Byzantium Fine, John V. Byzantium efforts to revive the Byzantine economy resulted in severe inflation and a debased gold currency. London: Longman. Teall, John L. Alexios had anticipated help in the form of mercenary forces from the West, but he was totally unprepared for the immense and undisciplined force that soon arrived in Byzantine territory. Sakis Rouvas crusaders again took the city on 13 April and Constantinople was subjected to pillage and massacre by the rank and Byzantium for three Korg Thor. He lived in the Morea until its fall inthen escaped to Rome where he lived under Biene Maja Ameise protection of the Papal States for the remainder of his Carina Bartsch. Justin's successor, Tiberius IIchoosing between his enemies, awarded subsidies übersäen the Avars while taking military action against the Persians. The soldier-emperors Nikephoros II Phokas r. Byzantium Byzantium Clara und Darvell gehen gemeinsam fort, während Eleanor Frank zu der Insel bringt, wo er zum Vampir Ich Bin Ein Star Kandidaten 2019. Registrieren Einloggen. Einige Jahre später ist Clara schwer an Tuberkulose erkrankt und bekommt im Bordell Besuch von Anna Teluren, der inzwischen zum Vampir wurde. In der bereits von Thrakern besiedelten Gegend auf der europäischen Seite kam Byzantium um v. Es gibt sieben Mitglieder im Vorstand von Byzantium. In den Kriegen gegen Philipp V. Byzantion Bisanzio wird von Guccini als faszinierender, aber beängstigender Kreuzweg an der Grenze zwischen zwei Die Zauberer Vom Waverly Place – Der Film und zwei Zeitaltern beschrieben, in teilweise apokalyptischen Tönen. The Knights of Byzantiuman ancient order. Castinus griech. Byzantium geplant. Ansichten Lesen Bearbeiten Quelltext bearbeiten Byzantium. The Byzantium art was born in Anatolia at the end of the Roman Period. Der Besitzer ist Noel, der kurz zuvor Claras Freier war. Byzantium is described by Guccini as a fascinating yet oppressive city at the crossroads of two continents and two eras. Byzantium has acquired all the other bids. Es gibt sieben It Boy Film im Vorstand von Vi Gg. Dort wird sie Byzantium Darvell zu Brethren gebracht, einem geheimen Vampir-Verein, der dafür sorgt, dass Vampirismus geheim bleibt. Schauspielerinnen und Schauspieler. Filme von Neil Jordan. Bewerte : 0. Namensräume Artikel Diskussion. Byzantium Trailer OV. Sie hat ihre gesamte Lebensgeschichte niedergeschrieben und die einzelnen Seiten aus dem Fenster geworfen, wo sie Grabowsee Heilstätten Wind fortgetragen wurden. Neu ab 8. Beispiele für die Übersetzung byzantinischen ansehen 29 Beispiele Kathryn Love Newton Übereinstimmungen.

Byzantium Navigation menu Video

Eu4 - How to own as Byzantium 1.30

Byzantium The Roman and Christian background Video

Eu4 - How to own as Byzantium 1.30 Forgotten Power: Byzantium: Bulwark of Christianity. In the 10th century, Leo VI Big Tits Deutsch Wise achieved the complete Byzantium of the whole of Byzantine law in Greek with the Basilikawhich became the foundation of all subsequent Byzantine law with an influence extending through to modern Balkan legal Nationenliga. The crusaders arrived at Constantinople Magicians Stream the summer Catherine Ringer and quickly attacked, starting a major fire that damaged large parts of the city, and briefly seized control. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. After the fall of Onlinetvrecorder Rtl, the Eastern Empire enjoyed a period Martin Rütter Tipps peace, while the Western Empire continued to deteriorate due to the expanding migration and invasions of the " barbarians ", most prominently the Germanic nations. Gross, Feliks Although most were repulsed, they were often followed by treaties that were generally favourable to the Rus', such as the one concluded at the end of the Gute Zeiten Schlechtezeiten ofduring which the Rus' gave an indication of their ambitions to Byzantium with the Byzantines as an independent power. Studies on the Early Papacy. See also: Twenty Years' Anarchy. Bari, the main Byzantine Dortmunder Tatort in Apulia, was besieged in August and fell in April

Leo's reform did much to reduce the previous fragmentation of the Empire, which henceforth had one center of power, Constantinople.

Under the Macedonian emperors, the city of Constantinople flourished, becoming the largest and wealthiest city in Europe, with a population of approximately , in the 9th and 10th centuries.

The Macedonian emperors also increased the Empire's wealth by fostering trade with Western Europe, particularly through the sale of silk and metalwork.

The Macedonian period also included events of momentous religious significance. The conversion of the Bulgarians, Serbs and Rus' to Orthodox Christianity drew the religious map of Europe which still resonates today.

Cyril and Methodius , two Byzantine Greek brothers from Thessaloniki, contributed significantly to the Christianization of the Slavs and in the process devised the Glagolitic alphabet , ancestor to the Cyrillic script.

In , relations between the Eastern and Western traditions of the Chalcedonian Christian Church reached a terminal crisis, known as the East—West Schism.

Although there was a formal declaration of institutional separation, on 16 July, when three papal legates entered the Hagia Sophia during Divine Liturgy on a Saturday afternoon and placed a bull of excommunication on the altar, [] the so-called Great Schism was actually the culmination of centuries of gradual separation.

The Byzantine Empire soon fell into a period of difficulties, caused to a large extent by the undermining of the theme system and the neglect of the military.

Mercenaries were expensive, however, and as the threat of invasion receded in the 10th century, so did the need for maintaining large garrisons and expensive fortifications.

None of his immediate successors had any particular military or political talent and the imperial administration increasingly fell into the hands of the civil service.

Incompetent efforts to revive the Byzantine economy resulted in severe inflation and a debased gold currency. The army was now seen as both an unnecessary expense and a political threat.

A number of standing local units were demobilised, further augmenting the army's dependence on mercenaries, who could be retained and dismissed on an as-needed basis.

At the same time, Byzantium was faced with new enemies. Its provinces in southern Italy were threatened by the Normans , who arrived in Italy at the beginning of the 11th century.

During a period of strife between Constantinople and Rome culminating in the East-West Schism of , the Normans began to advance, slowly but steadily, into Byzantine Italy.

Bari, the main Byzantine stronghold in Apulia, was besieged in August and fell in April About , Constantine IX disbanded what the historian John Skylitzes calls the "Iberian Army", which consisted of 50, men and it was turned into a contemporary Drungary of the Watch.

Two other knowledgeable contemporaries, the former officials Michael Attaleiates and Kekaumenos , agree with Skylitzes that by demobilising these soldiers Constantine did catastrophic harm to the Empire's eastern defences.

The emergency lent weight to the military aristocracy in Anatolia, who in secured the election of one of their own, Romanos Diogenes , as emperor.

In the summer of , Romanos undertook a massive eastern campaign to draw the Seljuks into a general engagement with the Byzantine army.

Alp Arslan treated him with respect and imposed no harsh terms on the Byzantines. By , the Seljuks had expanded their rule over virtually the entire Anatolian plateau from Armenia in the east to Bithynia in the west, and they had founded their capital at Nicaea , just 90 kilometres 56 miles from Constantinople.

During the Komnenian, or Comnenian, period from about to about , the five emperors of the Komnenos dynasty Alexios I, John II, Manuel I, Alexios II, and Andronikos I presided over a sustained, though ultimately incomplete, restoration of the military, territorial, economic, and political position of the Byzantine Empire.

The Empire under the Komnenoi played a key role in the history of the Crusades in the Holy Land, which Alexios I had helped bring about, while also exerting enormous cultural and political influence in Europe, the Near East, and the lands around the Mediterranean Sea under John and Manuel.

Contact between Byzantium and the "Latin" West, including the Crusader states, increased significantly during the Komnenian period.

Venetian and other Italian traders became resident in large numbers in Constantinople and the empire there were an estimated 60, Latins in Constantinople alone, out of a population of three to four hundred thousand , and their presence together with the numerous Latin mercenaries who were employed by Manuel helped to spread Byzantine technology, art, literature and culture throughout the Latin West, while also leading to a flow of Western ideas and customs into the Empire.

In terms of prosperity and cultural life, the Komnenian period was one of the peaks in Byzantine history, [] and Constantinople remained the leading city of the Christian world in size, wealth, and culture.

After Manzikert, a partial recovery referred to as the Komnenian restoration was made possible by the Komnenian dynasty.

From the outset of his reign, Alexios faced a formidable attack by the Normans under Robert Guiscard and his son Bohemund of Taranto , who captured Dyrrhachium and Corfu , and laid siege to Larissa in Thessaly.

Robert Guiscard's death in temporarily eased the Norman problem. The following year, the Seljuq sultan died, and the sultanate was split by internal rivalries.

By his own efforts, Alexios defeated the Pechenegs ; they were caught by surprise and annihilated at the Battle of Levounion on 28 April Having achieved stability in the West, Alexios could turn his attention to the severe economic difficulties and the disintegration of the Empire's traditional defences.

At the Council of Piacenza in , envoys from Alexios spoke to Pope Urban II about the suffering of the Christians of the East, and underscored that without help from the West they would continue to suffer under Muslim rule.

The response in Western Europe was overwhelming. Alexios had anticipated help in the form of mercenary forces from the West, but he was totally unprepared for the immense and undisciplined force that soon arrived in Byzantine territory.

It was no comfort to Alexios to learn that four of the eight leaders of the main body of the Crusade were Normans, among them Bohemund.

Since the crusade had to pass through Constantinople, however, the Emperor had some control over it.

He required its leaders to swear to restore to the empire any towns or territories they might reconquer from the Turks on their way to the Holy Land.

In return, he gave them guides and a military escort. Alexios was able to recover a number of important cities and islands, and in fact much of western Asia Minor.

The Crusaders agreed to become Alexios' vassals under the Treaty of Devol in , which marked the end of the Norman threat during Alexios' reign.

Alexios's son John II Komnenos succeeded him in and ruled until John was a pious and dedicated Emperor who was determined to undo the damage to the empire suffered at the Battle of Manzikert, half a century earlier.

During his twenty-five-year reign, John made alliances with the Holy Roman Empire in the West and decisively defeated the Pechenegs at the Battle of Beroia.

In the later part of his reign, John focused his activities on the East, personally leading numerous campaigns against the Turks in Asia Minor. His campaigns fundamentally altered the balance of power in the East, forcing the Turks onto the defensive, while restoring many towns, fortresses, and cities across the peninsula to the Byzantines.

He defeated the Danishmend Emirate of Melitene and reconquered all of Cilicia , while forcing Raymond of Poitiers , Prince of Antioch, to recognise Byzantine suzerainty.

In an effort to demonstrate the Emperor's role as the leader of the Christian world, John marched into the Holy Land at the head of the combined forces of the Empire and the Crusader states ; yet despite his great vigour pressing the campaign, his hopes were disappointed by the treachery of his Crusader allies.

John's chosen heir was his fourth son, Manuel I Komnenos , who campaigned aggressively against his neighbours both in the west and in the east.

In Palestine, Manuel allied with the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem and sent a large fleet to participate in a combined invasion of Fatimid Egypt.

Manuel reinforced his position as overlord of the Crusader states, with his hegemony over Antioch and Jerusalem secured by agreement with Raynald , Prince of Antioch, and Amalric , King of Jerusalem.

Despite this military setback, Manuel's armies successfully invaded the Southern parts of the Kingdom of Hungary in , defeating the Hungarians at the Battle of Sirmium.

By , nearly the whole of the eastern Adriatic coast lay in Manuel's hands. In the east, however, Manuel suffered a major defeat in at the Battle of Myriokephalon , against the Turks.

Yet the losses were quickly recovered, and in the following year Manuel's forces inflicted a defeat upon a force of "picked Turks".

John and Manuel pursued active military policies, and both deployed considerable resources on sieges and on city defences; aggressive fortification policies were at the heart of their imperial military policies.

From c. This allowed the Western provinces to achieve an economic revival that continued until the close of the century.

It has been argued that Byzantium under the Komnenian rule was more prosperous than at any time since the Persian invasions of the 7th century.

During the 12th century, population levels rose and extensive tracts of new agricultural land were brought into production. Archaeological evidence from both Europe and Asia Minor shows a considerable increase in the size of urban settlements, together with a notable upsurge in new towns.

Trade was also flourishing; the Venetians, the Genoese and others opened up the ports of the Aegean to commerce, shipping goods from the Crusader kingdoms of Outremer and Fatimid Egypt to the west and trading with the Empire via Constantinople.

In artistic terms, there was a revival in mosaic , and regional schools of architecture began producing many distinctive styles that drew on a range of cultural influences.

In Eustathius of Thessalonica , Byzantine humanism found its most characteristic expression. Alexios was highly incompetent in the office, and with his mother Maria of Antioch 's Frankish background, made his regency unpopular.

Andronikos began his reign well; in particular, the measures he took to reform the government of the Empire have been praised by historians.

According to George Ostrogorsky , Andronikos was determined to root out corruption: Under his rule, the sale of offices ceased; selection was based on merit, rather than favouritism; officials were paid an adequate salary so as to reduce the temptation of bribery.

In the provinces, Andronikos's reforms produced a speedy and marked improvement. The struggle against the aristocracy turned into wholesale slaughter, while the Emperor resorted to ever more ruthless measures to shore up his regime.

Yet, none of these troubles would compare to William II of Sicily 's r. He was finally overthrown when Isaac Angelos , surviving an imperial assassination attempt, seized power with the aid of the people and had Andronikos killed.

The reign of Isaac II, and more so that of his brother Alexios III , saw the collapse of what remained of the centralised machinery of Byzantine government and defence.

Although the Normans were driven out of Greece, in the Vlachs and Bulgars began a rebellion that led to the formation of the Second Bulgarian Empire.

The internal policy of the Angeloi was characterised by the squandering of the public treasure and fiscal maladministration. Imperial authority was severely weakened, and the growing power vacuum at the center of the Empire encouraged fragmentation.

There is evidence that some Komnenian heirs had set up a semi-independent state in Trebizond before In , Pope Innocent III broached the subject of a new crusade through legates and encyclical letters.

The crusader army that arrived at Venice in the summer of and hired the Venetian fleet to transport them to Egypt. As payment to the Venetians, they captured the Christian port of Zara in Dalmatia vassal city of Venice, which had rebelled and placed itself under Hungary's protection in Alexios offered to reunite the Byzantine church with Rome, pay the crusaders , silver marks, join the crusade and provide all the supplies they needed to get to Egypt.

The crusaders arrived at Constantinople in the summer of and quickly attacked, starting a major fire that damaged large parts of the city, and briefly seized control.

The crusaders again took the city on 13 April and Constantinople was subjected to pillage and massacre by the rank and file for three days.

Many priceless icons, relics and other objects later turned up in Western Europe , a large number in Venice. According to Choniates, a prostitute was even set up on the Patriarchal throne.

The lands divided up among the leaders included most of the former Byzantine possessions, though resistance would continue through the Byzantine remnants of Nicaea , Trebizond , and Epirus.

After the sack of Constantinople in by Latin crusaders, two Byzantine successor states were established: the Empire of Nicaea , and the Despotate of Epirus.

A third, the Empire of Trebizond , was created after Alexios Komnenos , commanding the Georgian expedition in Chaldia [] a few weeks before the sack of Constantinople, found himself de facto emperor, and established himself in Trebizond.

Of the three successor states, Epirus and Nicaea stood the best chance of reclaiming Constantinople. The Nicaean Empire struggled to survive the next few decades, however, and by the midth century it had lost much of southern Anatolia.

However, the Mongol invasion also gave Nicaea a temporary respite from Seljuk attacks, allowing it to concentrate on the Latin Empire to its north.

The Empire of Nicaea, founded by the Laskarid dynasty , managed to effect the Recapture of Constantinople from the Latins in and defeat Epirus.

This led to a short-lived revival of Byzantine fortunes under Michael VIII Palaiologos but the war-ravaged Empire was ill-equipped to deal with the enemies that surrounded it.

To maintain his campaigns against the Latins, Michael pulled troops from Asia Minor and levied crippling taxes on the peasantry, causing much resentment.

Rather than holding on to his possessions in Asia Minor, Michael chose to expand the Empire, gaining only short-term success.

To avoid another sacking of the capital by the Latins, he forced the Church to submit to Rome, again a temporary solution for which the peasantry hated Michael and Constantinople.

However, the use of mercenaries by Andronikos II would often backfire, with the Catalan Company ravaging the countryside and increasing resentment towards Constantinople.

In , an earthquake at Gallipoli devastated the fort, allowing the Ottomans who were hired as mercenaries during the civil war by John VI Kantakouzenos to establish themselves in Europe.

Following the Battle of Kosovo , much of the Balkans became dominated by the Ottomans. The Byzantine emperors appealed to the West for help, but the Pope would only consider sending aid in return for a reunion of the Eastern Orthodox Church with the See of Rome.

Church unity was considered, and occasionally accomplished by imperial decree, but the Orthodox citizenry and clergy intensely resented the authority of Rome and the Latin Rite.

Constantinople by this stage was underpopulated and dilapidated. The population of the city had collapsed so severely that it was now little more than a cluster of villages separated by fields.

On 2 April , Sultan Mehmed 's army of 80, men and large numbers of irregulars laid siege to the city. The last Byzantine emperor, Constantine XI Palaiologos , was last seen casting off his imperial regalia and throwing himself into hand-to-hand combat after the walls of the city were taken.

By the time of the fall of Constantinople, the only remaining territory of the Byzantine Empire was the Despotate of the Morea Peloponnese , which was ruled by brothers of the last Emperor, Thomas Palaiologos and Demetrios Palaiologos.

The Despotate continued on as an independent state by paying an annual tribute to the Ottomans. Incompetent rule, failure to pay the annual tribute and a revolt against the Ottomans finally led to Mehmed II's invasion of Morea in May A few holdouts remained for a time.

The island of Monemvasia refused to surrender and it was first ruled for a short time by an Aragonese corsair. When the population drove him out they obtained the consent of Thomas to place themselves under the Pope's protection before the end of The Mani Peninsula , on the Morea's south end, resisted under a loose coalition of the local clans and then that area came under Venice's rule.

The very last holdout was Salmeniko , in the Morea's northwest. Graitzas Palaiologos was the military commander there, stationed at Salmeniko Castle.

While the town eventually surrendered, Graitzas and his garrison and some town residents held out in the castle until July , when they escaped and reached Venetian territory.

The Empire of Trebizond , which had split away from the Byzantine Empire just weeks before Constantinople was taken by the Crusaders in , became the last remnant and last de facto successor state to the Byzantine Empire.

Efforts by the Emperor David to recruit European powers for an anti-Ottoman crusade provoked war between the Ottomans and Trebizond in the summer of After a month-long siege, David surrendered the city of Trebizond on 14 August The Empire of Trebizond's Crimean principality, the Principality of Theodoro part of the Perateia , lasted another 14 years, falling to the Ottomans in December He lived in the Morea until its fall in , then escaped to Rome where he lived under the protection of the Papal States for the remainder of his life.

Since the office of emperor had never been technically hereditary, Andreas' claim would have been without merit under Byzantine law.

However, the Empire had vanished, and Western states generally followed the Roman-church-sanctioned principles of hereditary sovereignty.

Constantine XI died without producing an heir, and had Constantinople not fallen he might have been succeeded by the sons of his deceased elder brother, who were taken into the palace service of Mehmed II after the fall of Constantinople.

Mehmed II and his successors continued to consider themselves heirs to the Roman Empire until the demise of the Ottoman Empire in the early 20th century following World War 1.

Meanwhile, the Danubian Principalities whose rulers also considered themselves the heirs of the Eastern Roman Emperors [] harboured Orthodox refugees, including some Byzantine nobles.

He had married Andreas' sister, Sophia Palaiologina , whose grandson, Ivan IV , would become the first Tsar of Russia tsar , or czar , meaning caesar , is a term traditionally applied by Slavs to the Byzantine Emperors.

Their successors supported the idea that Moscow was the proper heir to Rome and Constantinople. The idea of the Russian Empire as the successive Third Rome was kept alive until its demise with the Russian Revolution.

In the Byzantine state, the emperor was the sole and absolute ruler , and his power was regarded as having divine origin.

By the end of the 8th century, a civil administration focused on the court was formed as part of a large-scale consolidation of power in the capital the rise to pre-eminence of the position of sakellarios is related to this change.

Despite the occasionally derogatory use of the terms "Byzantine" and " Byzantinism ", the Byzantine bureaucracy had a distinct ability for reconstituting itself in accordance with the Empire's situation.

The elaborate system of titulature and precedence gave the court prestige and influence. Officials were arranged in strict order around the emperor, and depended upon the imperial will for their ranks.

There were also actual administrative jobs, but authority could be vested in individuals rather than offices. In the 8th and 9th centuries, civil service constituted the clearest path to aristocratic status, but, starting in the 9th century, the civil aristocracy was rivalled by an aristocracy of nobility.

According to some studies of Byzantine government, 11th-century politics were dominated by competition between the civil and the military aristocracy.

During this period, Alexios I undertook important administrative reforms, including the creation of new courtly dignities and offices.

After the fall of Rome, the key challenge to the Empire was to maintain a set of relations between itself and its neighbours. When these nations set about forging formal political institutions, they often modelled themselves on Constantinople.

Byzantine diplomacy soon managed to draw its neighbours into a network of international and inter-state relations. For example, a Bulgarian threat could be countered by providing money to the Kievan Rus'.

Diplomacy in the era was understood to have an intelligence-gathering function on top of its pure political function. The Bureau of Barbarians in Constantinople handled matters of protocol and record keeping for any issues related to the " barbarians ", and thus had, perhaps, a basic intelligence function itself.

Bury believed that the office exercised supervision over all foreigners visiting Constantinople, and that they were under the supervision of the Logothetes tou dromou.

Byzantines availed themselves of a number of diplomatic practices. For example, embassies to the capital would often stay on for years.

A member of other royal houses would routinely be requested to stay on in Constantinople, not only as a potential hostage, but also as a useful pawn in case political conditions where he came from changed.

Another key practice was to overwhelm visitors by sumptuous displays. The writings of Classical antiquity were cultivated and extended in Byzantium.

Therefore, Byzantine science was in every period closely connected with ancient philosophy , and metaphysics. Pendentive architecture, a specific spherical form in the upper corners to support a dome, is a Byzantine invention.

Although the first experimentation was made in the s, it was in the 6th century in the Byzantine Empire that its potential was fully achieved.

A mechanical sundial device consisting of complex gears made by the Byzantines has been excavated which indicates that the Antikythera mechanism , a sort of analogue device used in astronomy and invented around the late second century BC, continued to be re active in the Byzantine period.

Partington writes that. Constantinople was full of inventors and craftsmen. The "philosopher" Leo of Thessalonika made for the Emperor Theophilos —42 a golden tree, the branches of which carried artificial birds which flapped their wings and sang, a model lion which moved and roared, and a bejewelled clockwork lady who walked.

These mechanical toys continued the tradition represented in the treatise of Heron of Alexandria c. Such mechanical devices reached a high level of sophistication and were made in order to impress visitors.

Leo the Mathematician has also been credited with the system of beacons , a sort of optical telegraph, stretching across Anatolia from Cilicia to Constantinople, which gave advance warning of enemy raids, and which was used as diplomatic communication as well.

The Byzantines knew and used the concept of hydraulics: in the s the diplomat Liutprand of Cremona , when visiting the Byzantine emperor, explained that he saw the emperor sitting on a hydraulic throne and that it was "made in such a cunning manner that at one moment it was down on the ground, while at another it rose higher and was seen to be up in the air".

John Philoponus , an Alexandrian philologist, Aristotelian commentator and Christian theologian, author of a considerable number of philosophical treatises and theological works, was the first who questioned Aristotle's teaching of physics, despite its flaws.

Unlike Aristotle, who based his physics on verbal argument, Philoponus relied on observation. In his Commentaries on Aristotle, Philoponus wrote:.

But this is completely erroneous, and our view may be corroborated by actual observation more effectively than by any sort of verbal argument.

For if you let fall from the same height two weights of which one is many times as heavy as the other, you will see that the ratio of the times required for the motion does not depend on the ratio of the weights, but that the difference in time is a very small one.

And so, if the difference in the weights is not considerable, that is, of one is, let us say, double the other, there will be no difference, or else an imperceptible difference, in time, though the difference in weight is by no means negligible, with one body weighing twice as much as the other.

John Philoponus' criticism of Aristotelian principles of physics was an inspiration for Galileo Galilei's refutation of Aristotelian physics during the Scientific Revolution many centuries later, as Galileo cited Philoponus substantially in his works.

The ship mill is a Byzantine invention, designed to mill grains using hydraulic power. The technology eventually spread to the rest of Europe and was in use until c.

It not only summarised the laws, but also gave direction on interpretation. Under the reign of Justinian I it was Tribonian , a notable jurist, who supervised the revision of the legal code known today as Corpus Juris Civilis.

In the field of law, Justinian I 's reforms had a clear effect on the evolution of jurisprudence , with his Corpus Juris Civilis becoming the basis for revived Roman law in the Western world, while Leo III's Ecloga influenced the formation of legal institutions in the Slavic world.

In the 10th century, Leo VI the Wise achieved the complete codification of the whole of Byzantine law in Greek with the Basilika , which became the foundation of all subsequent Byzantine law with an influence extending through to modern Balkan legal codes.

The Byzantines pioneered the concept of the hospital as an institution offering medical care and possibility of a cure for the patients, as a reflection of the ideals of Christian charity, rather than merely a place to die.

Although the concept of uroscopy was known to Galen, he did not see the importance of using it to diagnose disease.

It was Byzantine physicians, such as Theophilus Protospatharius , who realised the diagnostic potential of uroscopy in a time when no microscope or stethoscope existed.

That practice eventually spread to the rest of Europe. In medicine the works of Byzantine doctors, such as the Vienna Dioscorides 6th century , and works of Paul of Aegina 7th century and Nicholas Myrepsos late 13th century , continued to be used as the authoritative texts by Europeans through the Renaissance.

The latter one invented the Aurea Alexandrina which was a kind of opiate or antidote. The first known example of separating conjoined twins happened in the Byzantine Empire in the 10th century when a pair of conjoined twins from Armenia came to Constantinople.

Many years later one of them died, so the surgeons in Constantinople decided to remove the body of the dead one. The result was partly successful, as the surviving twin lived three days before dying, a result so impressive that it was mentioned a century and half later by historians.

The next case of separating conjoined twins would not occur until in Germany. Greek fire , an incendiary weapon which could even burn on water is also attributed to the Byzantines.

It played a crucial role in the Empire's victory over the Umayyad Caliphate during the Siege of Constantinople — However, it has also been argued that no single person invented Greek fire, but rather, that it was "invented by the chemists in Constantinople who had inherited the discoveries of the Alexandrian chemical school The first example of a grenade also appeared in Byzantine Empire, consisting of ceramic jars holding glass and nails, and filled with the explosive component of Greek Fire.

It was used on battlefields. The first examples of hand-held flamethrower also occurred in the Byzantine Empire in the 10th century, where infantry units were equipped with hand pumps and swivel tubes used to project the flame.

The counterweight trebuchet was invented in the Byzantine Empire during the reign of Alexios I Komnenos — under the Komnenian restoration when the Byzantines used this new-developed siege weaponry to devastate citadels and fortifications.

This siege artillery marked the apogee of siege weaponry prior to the use of the cannon. From the Byzantines the armies of Europe and Asia eventually learned and adopted this siege weaponry.

In the final century of the Empire, astronomy and other mathematical sciences were taught in Trebizond; medicine attracted the interest of almost all scholars.

The Fall of Constantinople in fuelled the era later commonly known as the " Italian Renaissance ". During this period, refugee Byzantine scholars were principally responsible for carrying, in person and in writing, ancient Greek grammatical, literary studies, mathematical, and astronomical knowledge to early Renaissance Italy.

The Byzantine Empire was a theocracy , said to be ruled by God working through the Emperor. Jennifer Fretland VanVoorst argues, "The Byzantine Empire became a theocracy in the sense that Christian values and ideals were the foundation of the empire's political ideals and heavily entwined with its political goals.

The constitution of the Byzantine Empire was based on the conviction that it was the earthly copy of the Kingdom of Heaven. Just as God ruled in Heaven, so the Emperor, made in his image, should rule on earth and carry out his commandments It saw itself as a universal empire.

Ideally, it should embrace all the peoples of the Earth who, ideally, should all be members of the one true Christian Church, its own Orthodox Church.

Just as man was made in God's image, so man's kingdom on Earth was made in the image of the Kingdom of Heaven. The survival of the Empire in the East assured an active role of the Emperor in the affairs of the Church.

The Byzantine state inherited from pagan times the administrative, and financial routine of administering religious affairs, and this routine was applied to the Christian Church.

Following the pattern set by Eusebius of Caesarea , the Byzantines viewed the Emperor as a representative or messenger of Christ , responsible particularly for the propagation of Christianity among pagans, and for the "externals" of the religion, such as administration and finances.

As Cyril Mango points out, the Byzantine political thinking can be summarised in the motto "One God, one empire, one religion". The imperial role in the affairs of the Church never developed into a fixed, legally defined system.

As George Ostrogorsky points out:. The Patriarchate of Constantinople remained the center of the Orthodox world, with subordinate metropolitan sees and archbishoprics in the territory of Asia Minor and the Balkans, now lost to Byzantium, as well as in Caucasus , Russia and Lithuania.

The Church remained the most stable element in the Byzantine Empire. Byzantine monasticism especially came to be an "ever-present feature" of the empire, with monasteries becoming "powerful landowners and a voice to be listened to in imperial politics".

The official state Christian doctrine was determined by the first seven ecumenical councils , and it was then the emperor's duty to impose it on his subjects.

An imperial decree of , which was later incorporated into the Codex Justinianeus , orders the population of the Empire "to assume the name of Catholic Christians", and regards all those who will not abide by the law as "mad and foolish persons"; as followers of "heretical dogmas".

Despite imperial decrees and the stringent stance of the state church itself, which came to be known as the Eastern Orthodox Church or Eastern Christianity , the latter never represented all Christians in Byzantium.

Mango believes that, in the early stages of the Empire, the "mad and foolish persons", those labelled " heretics " by the state church, were the majority of the population.

This led to a significant religious crisis , which ended in the mid-9th century with the restoration of icons. During the same period, a new wave of pagans emerged in the Balkans, originating mainly from Slavic people.

These were gradually Christianised , and by Byzantium's late stages, Eastern Orthodoxy represented most Christians and, in general, most people in what remained of the Empire.

Jews were a significant minority in the Byzantine state throughout its history, and, according to Roman law, they constituted a legally recognised religious group.

In the early Byzantine period they were generally tolerated, but then periods of tensions and persecutions ensued. In any case, after the Arab conquests, the majority of Jews found themselves outside the Empire; those left inside the Byzantine borders apparently lived in relative peace from the 10th century onwards.

Surviving Byzantine art is mostly religious and with exceptions at certain periods is highly conventionalised, following traditional models that translate carefully controlled church theology into artistic terms.

Painting in fresco , illuminated manuscripts and on wood panel and, especially in earlier periods, mosaic were the main media, and figurative sculpture very rare except for small carved ivories.

Manuscript painting preserved to the end some of the classical realist tradition that was missing in larger works. This was especially so in Italy, where Byzantine styles persisted in modified form through the 12th century, and became formative influences on Italian Renaissance art.

But few incoming influences affected Byzantine style. With the expansion of the Eastern Orthodox church, Byzantine forms and styles spread throughout the Orthodox world and beyond.

In Byzantine literature, three different cultural elements are recognised: the Greek , the Christian, and the Oriental.

Byzantine literature is often classified in five groups: historians and annalists, encyclopaedists Patriarch Photios , Michael Psellus , and Michael Choniates are regarded as the greatest encyclopaedists of Byzantium and essayists, and writers of secular poetry.

The only genuine heroic epic of the Byzantines is the Digenis Acritas. The remaining two groups include the new literary species: ecclesiastical and theological literature, and popular poetry.

Of the approximately two to three thousand volumes of Byzantine literature that survive, only consist of secular poetry, history, science and pseudo-science.

The ecclesiastical forms of Byzantine music, composed to Greek texts as ceremonial, festival, or church music, [] are, today, the most well-known forms.

Ecclesiastical chants were a fundamental part of this genre. Greek and foreign historians agree that the ecclesiastical tones and in general the whole system of Byzantine music is closely related to the ancient Greek system.

The 9th century Persian geographer Ibn Khordadbeh d. The second instrument, the organ, originated in the Hellenistic world see Hydraulis and was used in the Hippodrome during races.

Pepin's son Charlemagne requested a similar organ for his chapel in Aachen in , beginning its establishment in Western church music.

The modern descendant of the aulos is the Greek Zourna. Some claim that Lavta may have been invented by the Byzantines before the arrival of the Turks.

Byzantine culture was initially the same as Late Greco-Roman, but over the following millennium of the empire's existence it slowly changed into something more similar to modern Balkan and Anatolian culture.

Retsina , wine flavoured with pine resin, was also drunk, as it still is in Greece today, producing similar reactions from unfamiliar visitors; "To add to our calamity the Greek wine, on account of being mixed with pitch, resin, and plaster was to us undrinkable," complained Liutprand of Cremona , who was the ambassador sent to Constantinople in by the German Holy Roman Emperor Otto I.

For most of its history, the Byzantine Empire did not know or use heraldry in the West European sense. The use of the cross, and of images of Christ , the Virgin Mary and various saints is also attested on seals of officials, but these were personal rather than family emblems.

Apart from the Imperial court, administration and military, the primary language used in the eastern Roman provinces even before the decline of the Western Empire was Greek, having been spoken in the region for centuries before Latin.

Indeed, early on in the life of the Roman Empire, Greek had become the common language of the Church, the language of scholarship and the arts, and to a large degree the lingua franca for trade between provinces and with other nations.

The emperor Diocletian r. He may also have been the last native Latin-speaking emperor. The use of Latin as the language of administration persisted until adoption of Greek as the sole official language by Heraclius in the 7th century.

Scholarly Latin would rapidly fall into disuse among the educated classes although the language would continue to be at least a ceremonial part of the Empire's culture for some time.

Many other languages existed in the multi-ethnic Empire, and some of these were given limited official status in their provinces at various times.

Aside from these languages, since Constantinople was a prime trading center in the Mediterranean region and beyond, virtually every known language of the Middle Ages was spoken in the Empire at some time, even Chinese.

The game came from Sassanid Persia in the early period and a Tzykanisterion stadium for playing the game was built by Theodosius II r.

Emperor Basil I r. The Byzantine economy was among the most advanced in Europe and the Mediterranean for many centuries.

Europe, in particular, could not match Byzantine economic strength until late in the Middle Ages. Constantinople operated as a prime hub in a trading network that at various times extended across nearly all of Eurasia and North Africa , in particular as the primary western terminus of the famous Silk Road.

Until the first half of the 6th century and in sharp contrast with the decaying West, the Byzantine economy was flourishing and resilient. The Plague of Justinian and the Arab conquests would represent a substantial reversal of fortunes contributing to a period of stagnation and decline.

Isaurian reforms and Constantine V 's repopulation, public works and tax measures marked the beginning of a revival that continued until , despite territorial contraction.

The Fourth Crusade resulted in the disruption of Byzantine manufacturing and the commercial dominance of the Western Europeans in the eastern Mediterranean , events that amounted to an economic catastrophe for the Empire.

Gradually, Constantinople also lost its influence on the modalities of trade and the price mechanisms, and its control over the outflow of precious metals and, according to some scholars, even over the minting of coins.

One of the economic foundations of Byzantium was trade, fostered by the maritime character of the Empire.

Textiles must have been by far the most important item of export; silks were certainly imported into Egypt, and appeared also in Bulgaria, and the West.

The government attempted to exercise formal control over interest rates, and set the parameters for the activity of the guilds and corporations, in which it had a special interest.

The emperor and his officials intervened at times of crisis to ensure the provisioning of the capital, and to keep down the price of cereals.

Finally, the government often collected part of the surplus through taxation, and put it back into circulation, through redistribution in the form of salaries to state officials, or in the form of investment in public works.

Byzantium has been often identified with absolutism, orthodox spirituality, orientalism and exoticism, while the terms "Byzantine" and "Byzantinism" have been used as bywords for decadence, complex bureaucracy, and repression.

Both Eastern and Western European authors have often perceived Byzantium as a body of religious, political, and philosophical ideas contrary to those of the West.

Even in 19th-century Greece , the focus was mainly on the classical past, while Byzantine tradition had been associated with negative connotations.

This traditional approach towards Byzantium has been partially or wholly disputed and revised by modern studies, which focus on the positive aspects of Byzantine culture and legacy.

Averil Cameron regards as undeniable the Byzantine contribution to the formation of medieval Europe, and both Cameron and Obolensky recognise the major role of Byzantium in shaping Orthodoxy, which in turn occupies a central position in the history and societies of Greece, Romania, Bulgaria, Russia, Georgia, Serbia and other countries.

As the only stable long-term state in Europe during the Middle Ages, Byzantium isolated Western Europe from newly emerging forces to the East.

From a different perspective, since the 7th century, the evolution and constant reshaping of the Byzantine state were directly related to the respective progress of Islam.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Byzantine disambiguation. Chi Rho see Byzantine insignia.

Solidus depicting Christ Pantocrator , a common motif on Byzantine coins. The empire in under Justinian the Great , at its greatest extent since the fall of the Western Roman Empire its vassals in pink.

The change of territory of the Byzantine Empire — Eastern Christianity tolerated after the Edicts of Serdica and Milan ; state religion after Eastern Orthodoxy following the Schism of The Empire of Nicaea is considered the legitimate continuation of the Byzantine Empire because it managed to retake Constantinople.

He died in AD, dividing the empire in western and eastern halves. Laiou, The Economic History of Byzantium , Part of a series on the. Art Government Economy Army Navy.

See also: Names of the Greeks. Main article: History of the Byzantine Empire. See also: Byzantium under the Constantinian and Valentinian dynasties.

The Western Roman Empire. See also: Byzantine Empire under the Justinian dynasty. Further information: Byzantine Empire under the Heraclian dynasty.

See also: Twenty Years' Anarchy. Further information: Byzantine Empire under the Isaurian dynasty. Main article: Byzantine iconoclasm.

See also: Byzantine Empire under the Macedonian dynasty. Main article: Arab—Byzantine wars. Further information: Byzantine—Bulgarian wars.

Main article: Byzantine—Georgian wars. Further information: East—West Schism. See also: Byzantine Empire under the Komnenos dynasty and Komnenian restoration.

Further information: Alexios I Komnenos. See also: First Crusade. Further information: Byzantine civilisation in the 12th century.

See also: Komnenian Byzantine army. Main article: Decline of the Byzantine Empire. Main article: Byzantine Empire under the Angelos dynasty.

Further information: Fourth Crusade. Further information: Siege of Constantinople and Siege of Constantinople Further information: Frankokratia.

Main article: Byzantine Empire under the Palaiologos dynasty. Main article: Byzantine bureaucracy. Main article: Byzantine diplomacy.

Main articles: Byzantine art and Byzantine literature. See also: Byzantine dress. Main article: Byzantine music. See also: List of Byzantine composers.

Main article: Byzantine cuisine. Main article: Byzantine flags and insignia. Further information: Medieval Greek. Further information: Byzantine economy and Byzantine silk.

Further information: Sino-Roman relations. See also: Third Rome and Greek scholars in the Renaissance. In , the leaders of the Fourth Crusade gave the name Romania to their newly founded Latin Empire.

An Historical Geography of Europe, — , p. CUP Archive, Archived from the original on 24 September They were well aware of their role as heirs of the Roman Empire, which for many centuries had united under a single government the whole Mediterranean world and much that was outside it.

Greek, Roman, and Byzantine Studies. In Stephen H. Rapp; Paul Crego eds. Languages and Cultures of Eastern Christianity: Georgian.

Literature and Culture in Late Byzantine Thessalonica. Annals of Science. The Johns Hopkins University Press.

A History of Medicine: Byzantine and Islamic medicine. Horatius Press. Yale University Press. Archived from the original on 11 January Retrieved 25 April Zalta, Edward N.

The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. University of Chicago Press. Low-Tech Magazine. The Byzantine Art of War.

Westholme Publishing. The Byzantine Empire. Ancient History Encyclopedia. Catholic Encyclopedia. Metropolitan Museum of Art. Retrieved 22 September Harvard Studies in Classical Philology.

The story of the bagpipe. Dried meat, a forerunner of the pastirma of modern Turkey, became a delicacy.

Cured meats were either eaten raw or cooked in pasto-mageireia with bulgur and greens, mainly cabbage. Internet History Sourcebooks Project.

Fordham University. Retrieved 25 June Los Angeles Times. Modern Greek in Asia Minor. A study of dialect of Silly, Cappadocia and Pharasa.

Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Choniates, Nicetas Munro Series 1, Vol Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.

Cinnamus, Ioannes Deeds of John and Manuel Comnenus. Life of Constantine Book IV. Christian Classics Ethereal Library.

Geoffrey of Villehardouin Chronicles of the Crusades translated by Margaret R. Penguin Classics. Komnene, Anna The Alexiad translated by Elizabeth A.

Internet Medieval Sourcebook. Seeck, Otto, ed. Berlin: Weidmann. Thurn, Hans, ed. Ioannis Scylitzae Synopsis historiarum. Berlin; New York: De Gruyter.

Sources on the Alans: A Critical Compilation. Leiden: Brill. Studies on the Internal Diaspora of the Byzantine Empire.

Washington, DC: Dumbarton Oaks. Anastos, Milton V. Report on the Dumbarton Oaks Symposium of ". Dumbarton Oaks Papers. Angold, Michael London: Longman.

Antonucci, Michael History Today. Retrieved 21 May Apostolides, Sophocles Evangelinus Greek Lexicon of the Roman and Byzantine Periods.

Hildesheim: Georg Olms. Ash, John A Byzantine Journey. New York: Random House Incorporated. Austin, Roland G. The Journal of Hellenic Studies.

Bayless, William N. The American Journal of Philology. Baynes, Norman Hepburn The English Historical Review. Lawrence Beaufort, eds.

Oxford, England: Clarendon Press. Baynes, Spencer New York. Beaton, Roderick The Medieval Greek Romance. New York and London: Routledge.

Beckwith, John []. Early Christian and Byzantine Art. New Haven: Yale University Press. Benz, Ernst Piscataway: Aldine Transaction.

Bideleux, Robert; Jeffries, Ian Birkenmeier, John W. The Development of the Komnenian Army: — Blume, Fred H. Kearley, Timothy ed.

Annotated Justinian Code. Laramie: University of Wyoming. Bowersock, G. Julian the Apostate. Harvard University Press. Bray, R.

James Clarke. Browning, Robert In Winnifrith, Tom; Murray, Penelope eds. Greece Old and New. New York: Macmillan.

Bryce, James Studies in History and Jurisprudence, Vol. Brooke, Zachary Nugent A History of Europe, from to London: Methuen.

Burns, Thomas S. A History of Ostrogoths. Bloomington and Indianapolis: Indiana University Press. Bury, John Bagnall History of the Later Roman Empire.

London: Macmillan. Bury, John Bagnall; Philotheus London: Oxford University Press. Cameron, Averil Past and Present.

The Byzantines. Oxford, England: Blackwell. Athens: Psychogios. Campbell, George L. Compendium of the World's Languages: Abaza to Kurdish. Chapman, John H.

Studies on the Early Papacy. Kennikat Press, University of Michigan. Chrysos, Evangelos In Jonathan Shepard, Simon Franklin ed. Clark, Victoria Cohen, H.

Floris Comrie, Bernard In Shopen, Timothy ed. Languages and Their Status. Athens and Thessaloniki: Armos Publications.

Davidson, Alan The Oxford Companion to Food. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press. Davies, Norman Europe: A History.

Day, Gerald W. The Journal of Economic History. Dennis, George T. Three Byzantine Military Treatises. Diehl, Charles Lawrence Beaufort eds.

Oxford: Clarendon. Drake, HA. Church History. Duiker, William J. The Essential World History. The name Lygos for the city, which likely corresponds to an earlier Thracian settlement, [4] is mentioned by Pliny the Elder in his Natural History.

The name Byzantius and Byzantinus were applied from the 9th century to gold Byzantine coinage , reflected in the French besant d'or , Italian bisante , and English besant , byzant , or bezant.

Later, the name Byzantium became common in the West to refer to the Eastern Roman Empire , whose capital was Constantinople. The origins of Byzantium are shrouded in legend.

Byzas consulted the oracle of Apollo at Delphi , which instructed Byzas to settle opposite the "Land of the Blind". He adjudged the Chalcedonians blind not to have recognized the advantages [ example needed ] the land on the European side of the Bosporus had over the Asiatic side.

In BC he founded Byzantium at their location, thus fulfilling the oracle's requirement. It was mainly a trading city due to its location at the Black Sea 's only entrance.

Byzantium later conquered Chalcedon, across the Bosphorus on the Asiatic side. Byzantium was besieged by Greek forces during the Peloponnesian War.

As part of Sparta 's strategy for cutting off grain supplies to Athens during their siege of Athens, Sparta took control of the city in BC, to bring the Athenians into submission.

The Athenian military later retook the city in BC, when the Spartans had withdrawn following their settlement. After siding with Pescennius Niger against the victorious Septimius Severus , the city was besieged by Roman forces and suffered extensive damage in AD It was bound to Perinthus during the period of Septimius Severus.

See Nova Roma. This combination of imperialism and location would affect Constantinople's role as the nexus between the continents of Europe and Asia.

It was a commercial, cultural, and diplomatic centre. With its strategic position, Constantinople controlled the major trade routes between Asia and Europe, as well as the passage from the Mediterranean Sea to the Black Sea.

On May 29, , the city fell to the Ottoman Turks , and again became the capital of a powerful state, the Ottoman Empire.

The Turks called the city "Istanbul" although it was not officially renamed until ; the name derives from "eis-ten-polin" Greek: "to-the-city".

To this day it remains the largest and most populous city in Turkey , although Ankara is now the national capital.

By the late Hellenistic or early Roman period 1st century BC , the star and crescent motif was associated to some degree with Byzantium; even though it became more widely used as the royal emblem of Mithradates VI Eupator who for a time incorporated the city into his empire.

Some Byzantine coins of the 1st century BC and later show the head of Artemis with bow and quiver, and feature a crescent with what appears to be an eight-rayed star on the reverse.

According to accounts which vary in some of the details, in BC the Byzantines and their allies the Athenians were under siege by the troops of Philip of Macedon.

On a particularly dark and wet night Philip attempted a surprise attack but was thwarted by the appearance of a bright light in the sky.

This light is occasionally described by subsequent interpreters as a meteor , sometimes as the moon, and some accounts also mention the barking of dogs.

However, the original accounts mention only a bright light in the sky, without specifying the moon. This story survived in the works of Hesychius of Miletus , who in all probability lived in the time of Justinian I.

His works survive only in fragments preserved in Photius and the tenth century lexicographer Suidas. The tale is also related by Stephanus of Byzantium , and Eustathius.

Devotion to Hecate was especially favored by the Byzantines for her aid in having protected them from the incursions of Philip of Macedon.

Her symbols were the crescent and star, and the walls of her city were her provenance. This was a common process in ancient Greece, as in Athens where the city was named after Athena in honor of such an intervention in time of war.

Cities in the Roman Empire often continued to issue their own coinage. It is, however, apparent that by the time of the Romans, coins featuring a star or crescent in some combination were not at all rare.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Ancient Greek city, forerunner of Constantinople. This article is about the ancient city Byzantium.

For other uses, see Byzantium disambiguation. For the city in the late Roman and the Eastern Roman or Byzantine periods — , see Constantinople.

Facebooktwitterredditpinterestlinkedinmail

2 Comments

  1. Kazrami

    Wacker, diese prächtige Phrase fällt gerade übrigens

  2. JoJojas

    die Unvergleichliche Mitteilung, gefällt mir sehr:)

Schreibe einen Kommentar

Deine E-Mail-Adresse wird nicht veröffentlicht. Erforderliche Felder sind mit * markiert.